.net barcode reader component download Radio-wave propagation in Software

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2-10 Nomograph showing the line-of-sight transmission distance as a function of receiving and transmitting antenna heights
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EM wave propagation phenomena 21
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2-11A Power in a free-space field (normalized to 1 W)
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You can calculate as follows: n2 = 4 sin2 or n = 2 sin 2 hthr D1 [213] 2 hthr D1 [212]
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The reflected signal contains both amplitude change and phase change The phase change is typically radians (180 ) The amplitude change is a function of frequency and the nature of the reflecting surface The reflection coefficient can be characterized as = pe j [214]
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22 Radio-wave propagation
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2-11B Relation of field strength to signal field power
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2-12 Out-of-phase waves cancel
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where is the reflection coefficient p is the amplitude change is the phase change j is the imaginary operator ( 1) For smooth, high-reflectivity surfaces and a horizontally polarized microwave signal that has a shallow angle of incidence, the value of the reflection coefficient is close to 1
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EM wave propagation phenomena 23 The phase change of the reflected signal at the receiving antenna is at least radians because of the reflection Added to this change is an additional phase shift that is a function of the difference in path lengths This phase shift can be expressed in terms of the two antenna heights and path length s= + 4 hthr D1 [215]
A category of reception problems called multipath phenomena exists because of interference between the direct and reflected components of the space wave The form of multipath phenomena that is, perhaps, most familiar to many readers is ghosting in off-the-air television reception Some multipath events are transitory in nature (as when an aircraft flies through the transmission path), while others are permanent (as when a large building, or hill, reflects the signal) In mobile communications, multipath phenomena are responsible for reception dead zones and picket fencing A dead zone exists when destructive interference between direct and reflected (or multiply reflected) waves drastically reduces signal strengths This problem is most often noticed at VHF and above when the vehicle is stopped; and the solution is to move the antenna one-half wavelength (which at VHF and UHF is a matter of a few inches) Picket fencing occurs as a mobile unit moves through successive dead zones and signal enhancement (or normal) zones, and it sounds like a series of short noise bursts At VHF, UHF, and microwave frequencies, the space wave is limited to so-called line-of-sight distances The horizon is theoretically the limit of communications distance, but the radio horizon is actually about 15 percent farther than the optical horizon (Fig 2-13) This phenomenon is caused by refractive bending in the atmosphere around the curvature of the earth, and it makes the geometry of the situation look as if the earth s radius is 4 3 the actual radius The refraction phenomenon occurs at VHF through microwave frequencies, but not in the visible light spectrum, because water and atmospheric pressure (which relates to the effects of atmospheric gases on microwave signals) become important contributors to the phenomenon The K factor expresses the degree of curvature along any given path, while the index of refraction n measures the differential properties between adjacent zones of air The K factor, also called the effective earth s radius factor, is defined according to the relationship of two hypothetical spheres, both centered at the exact center of
2-13 Phenomenon by which greater than line of sight communications occurs
24 Radio-wave propagation the earth The first sphere is the earth s surface, which has a radius ro (3440 nmi or 6370 km) The second sphere is larger than the first by the curvature of the signal ray path, and has a radius r The value of K is approximately K= r ro [216]
A value of K = 1 indicates a straight path (Fig 2-14); a value of K > 1 indicates a positively curved path (refraction); and a value of K < 1 indicates a negatively curved path (subrefraction) The actual value of K varies with local weather conditions, so one can expect variation not only between locations, but also seasonally In the arctic regions, K varies approximately over the range 12 to 134 In the lower 48 states of the United States, K varies from 125 to 19 during the summer months (especially in the south and southeast), and from 125 to 145 in the winter months The index of refraction n can be defined in two ways, depending on the situation When a signal passes across boundaries between adjacent regions of distinctly different properties (as occurs in temperature inversions, etc), the index of refraction is the ratio of the signal velocities in the two regions In a homogeneous region n can be expressed as the ratio of the free-space velocity c to the actual velocity in the atmosphere V: n= c V [217]
At the surface, near sea level, under standard temperature and pressure conditions, the value of n is approximately 10003, and in homogeneous atmospheres it will decrease by 4 10 8 per mile of altitude The units of n are a bit cumbersome in equations, so the UHF/microwave communities tend to use a derivative parameter, N, called the refractivity of the atmosphere: N = (n 1) 106 [218]
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