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results in an approximate (or measured) software size This is a measure of the amount of software product to be delivered; it is not an estimate of project effort, duration, or cost
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Whether size is approximated or measured for use as an early cost indicator for the project, a contingency of 20 percent to 30 percent should be added to allow for functionality not apparent early in the life cycle Historical data indicates that this scope creep typically occurs as a result of additional functionality being identified as user requirements evolve in subsequent development phases The approximation techniques discussed earlier are only valid if your application or development project is loosely coupled with other applications and generically fits the profile of projects currently in the ISBSG Repository
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In this chapter we provided examples of just some of the approximating size techniques that can be used when there is insufficient opportunity, time, or perhaps information to perform a detailed size measurement
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ne of the major factors contributing to blowouts in software project costs and schedules is scope creep Scope creep is the introduction of additional functionality that either was not specifically defined or was not identified at the time of estimation Undefined functionality will be missing from the functional size; consequently, the project will be underestimated
Identifying Missing Functionality
By comparing the different types of functionality delivered by completed software projects, you can gain an insight into what may be missing from your project s early specifications Functional sizing of the requirements of an application quantifies the different types of functionality to be delivered by the application As detailed in the previous chapter, industry figures available from the ISBSG Repository for projects measured with IFPUG function points indicate that complete applications tend to have consistent and predictable ratios of function points contributed by each of the function types This profile of functionality delivered by each of the function types for your planned application can be compared with that of the profile of typical completed and implemented applications Such a comparison will highlight potential areas where the project specifications are incomplete or where there are anomalies Note that that this approach for identifying missing functionality is unlikely to work for enhancement projects, simply because a particular enhancement can be focused upon for only certain types of functionality, for example, reporting In such a case its function type profile will reflect that focus, and it will not align with the overall application profile
practical Software project estimation
In addition to considering the average profile determined from the ISBSG data, it is important to consider the nature of the application in question For example, if the application were for end-of-month reporting, you would expect it to have a quite different function type profile than if it were an online contact management system You would expect the end-of-month reporting application to have a higher percentage of its functionality associated with external outputs and external queries than the online contact management system Figure 6-1 illustrates a case where the project manager for a new development of a financial application performs a detailed function point count of the planned project and then compares the percentage contribution of each type of functionality against the ISBSG Repository values The inner chart in Figure 6-1 represents ISBSG Development Project Data, where n = 798 The outer chart shows the example financial application This quantitative comparison shows the disparity between the planned project and the typical ISBSG profile (A comparison with the ISBSG typical profile is appropriate here because the financial application being developed is expected to have a function type profile that would align with the profile for an average application) The project manager noted that the reporting requirements ( External Outputs function points) had the largest percentage discrepancy, being much lower than expected (10 percent compared against the expected 22 percent of the total function points) The user subsequently confirmed that the first release of the software was expected to deliver all reporting requirements but that not all reports had been specified As a result, the project manager increased the original functional size to allow for the extra percent of reports
8% 30% 24% 16% 22% 30% 42%
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