bytescout barcode reader sdk for .net Use of Function Point Sizing (Functional Size Measurement) in Effort Estimation in Software

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Use of Function Point Sizing (Functional Size Measurement) in Effort Estimation
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Functional requirements are sized in function points and are measured using a functional size measurement method such as COSMIC (Common Software Measurement International Consortium), FiSMA (Finnish Software Measurement Association), IFPUG, or NESMA (Netherlands Software Metrics Association) Each of these ISO/IEC standardized functional size measurement methods has its own units of measure and approach to determining functional size A tutorial on functional size measurement can be found in 18 Simple case studies that illustrate the counting of function points are also provided Functional size has a role to play in both the macro- and microestimating approaches, as shown in Table 1-4
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Approach Macro-estimating Micro-estimating Use of Functional Sizing Functional size is a key input to most estimating equations and project comparisons The functional size allows you to calculate the expected project delivery rate for comparison with past projects
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Table 1-4 Use of Functional Size Approximation in Estimation Approaches
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In this book we explain the three macro-estimation techniques in detail and define the data and tools that you need to appropriately use these techniques We also provide an overview of microestimation Any technique is only as good as the data and information on which it is based You cannot expect any technique to compensate for lack of definition, understanding, or agreement on the scope of the software job to be done Just as a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, estimates of effort are only as reliable as the least reliable input variable And finally: Never rely on a single estimation method for a project The more cross-checks and sanity checks you can employ, the better
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Factors that Influence productivity
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hroughout this book we talk about project delivery rate (PDR) and refer to project attributes or characteristics that might influence the PDR that you use for your estimate (PDR is the expression in hours per function point of how long it takes to deliver/ develop functionality) For the purposes of this book, two groups of project attributes will influence your estimates: Those that the ISBSG has identified and analyzed from its project repository data Those project-specific characteristics that are not recorded in a metrics repository The first group impacts the various estimation techniques covered in this book; the latter group project-specific characteristics impacts the adjustment of the estimate you obtain from using the techniques in this book, to allow for the peculiarities of your organization, environment, and project This book does not cover risk analysis, but a detailed risk analysis should be undertaken prior to any project estimation The risk analysis may highlight the factors that will influence the adjustment that you make to your estimates and the factors that might negatively impact the chances of project success
Note Formal risk assessment is an essential prerequisite for project
estimation
practical Software project estimation
Project Attributes That Influence Project Delivery Rate
The ISBSG has performed a detailed statistical analysis of the project data contained in its repository to identify the project attributes that influence productivity, and hence, estimates of effort and duration So what are the main factors that can have an impact on PDR Only a few attributes seem to be consistently related to PDR Language and team size have been shown to impact PDR Readers will be interested in platform (which reflects the development environment) and in the rates achieved by the different organization types and the business areas within organizations These have been analyzed and a summary of the findings follows
Note Low project delivery rate means better productivity, fewer hours per
function point
Are Some Languages Better Than Others
A valuable breakdown considers project delivery rate for individual languages The choice of languages tends to be governed by the choice of platform (PC, midrange, mainframe, or multiplatform) Detailed analysis showed that most languages are concentrated on a single type of platform; Java is the only language that is well represented on all platforms
Note ISBSG research has shown that the primary programming language
is one of the two factors that have the greatest ability to explain variations in project delivery rate (team size1 is the other)
The observations in Tables 2-1 to 2-4 are based on an analysis of 1,681 projects from the repository (details on how these projects were selected are presented in Appendix B) The project groups analyzed for midrange computers are generally smaller, so take care before you jump to a conclusion The main 3GLs are COBOL, C, and Java PC projects now include quite a wide range of 3GLs and 4GLs For those languages that appear on more than one platform, some clear trends can be seen Mainframe PDR values tend to be 15 hours or more per function point On other platforms, PDR tends to be 8 to 12 hours per function point PDR in multiplatform environments is generally close to PDR in PC environments, except with traditional 3GLs such as COBOL and PL/I These observations probably reflect the better tools and interactive development environments available on non-mainframe platforms, especially for newer languages
The ISBSG collects data on and reports on Maximum Team Size (refer to the Glossary)
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