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Step 2 Adjust PDR for Project Size
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Next, you extract the adjustment factor that applies to the size of the project as measured in function points (see Table 16-5) If our example project team has an 800 FP project, this adjusts the median PDR downwards further to 302 hours per FP There is a relationship between project size and maximum team size, but other factors also influence the maximum team size on a project, such as development process and role division across the team
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Tables 16-4, 16-5, and 16-6 were derived from the ISBSG analysis referred to earlier
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Language ABAP Access ADS ASP C COBOL C++ C# Datastage Java Lotus Notes Natural Oracle Other 3GL Other 4GL PL/I Powerbuilder Scripting SQL Visual Basic Table 16-6
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Software project estimation Framework
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Median 093 323 436 181 096 367 126 238 051 053 400 282 285 060 231 303 313 328 023 377 Mean 129 792 880 571 066 617 363 345 210 133 700 446 492 026 070 006 410 576 142 489
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Programming Language Adjustment Factor
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Step 3 Adjust PDR for Development Language
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For the final adjustment, you extract the factor that applies to the planned development language Table 16-6 represents the most commonly used languages for the projects in the ISBSG Repository Our example project team plans to use Java for this project, which adjusts the median PDR downwards further to 249 hours per FP This PDR is significantly lower than the range of 40 to 47 from the team s estimating framework, and so indicates that the estimating framework calculates more conservative, but commercially safer, estimates
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Step 4 Calculate Effort Estimate and Consider the Range of Probable Values
Applying the estimating equation gives a median effort estimate for our example of 1,992 hours A median estimate represents a 50 percent
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probability of the project delivering its planned scope by providing that much effort There is a 71 percent confidence level to achieve the project within a range of 50 percent to 200 percent of this value In other words, the range of likely PDRs for a project of these characteristics and scope is 129 to 498 hours per FP The estimating framework falls within this range, even though it is large, and this increases the confidence in the estimate values In other words, the team s estimating framework does set reasonable targets
Summary
Creating a software project estimation framework for your development team will provide a tool that will allow you to more accurately estimate effort and duration for software projects The framework that you create will be tailored to suit your environment and team and will therefore provide more accurate estimates that if you simply used available industry data
Functional Size Measurement Methods in Use today
he past three decades of use of functional size measurement (FSM) have shown that it is currently the only proven method of sizing software that gives consistent and reliable results for project estimation and productivity comparisons The FSM method for sizing is supported and continually enhanced by the international community and is the method of choice for major software estimation tools and benchmarking organizations
How Many FSM Methods Are There
Currently, five FSM methods are recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO): COSMIC-FFP ISO/IEC 19761:2003 Software engineering A functional size measurement method1 FiSMA FSM 11 [3] ISO/IEC 29881:2008 Information technology Software and systems engineering FiSMA 11 functional size measurement method IFPUG CPM 43 [11] ISO/IEC 20926:2009 Software and systems engineering Software measurement IFPUG functional size measurement method 2009
A revised COSMIC standard is due for release in 2010: ISO/IEC 19761:2010 COSMIC functional size measurement method v 30 [10] Information technology Software and systems engineering COSMIC-FFP A functional size measurement method
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Mk II Function Point Analysis 131 Unadjusted [12] ISO/ IEC 20968:2002 Software engineering Mk II Function Point Analysis Counting Practices Manual NESMA FPA Method 21 Unadjusted [13] ISO/IEC 24570:2005 Software engineering NESMA functional size measurement method version 21 Definitions and counting guidelines for the application of Function Point Analysis The major steps in the methods as per their official specifications are described next Because Mk II is no longer regularly used, no description has been provided For analysis purposes the ISBSG combines IFPUG and NESMA sized projects, because these two methods are similar
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