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Fig 714: Powell s classification of aerostatic bearings [3]
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air filters that incorporate some means of vortex generation to centrifuge out the liquid droplets can remove liquid impurities Oil vapour in the compressed air supply presents difficulties because of its tendency to condense into a wax-like deposit within the bearing clearances The only effective way of preventing the oil vapour reaching the bearing is the use of an activated charcoal filter element Using industrial alcohol can do cleaning the deposit The air supply must also be properly regulated using a pressure reducing valve to prevent fluctuations There must also be a provision for air supply failures as a touch down can be disastrous A pressure-sensitive electrical switch can be wired into the machine overload relay circuit to cut off the electrical power to the machine if the pressure falls below a pre-set level [3] The complete external system arrangement is shown in Figure 715 Accumulators in the form of cylinders are used in all ultra-precision machine tools
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Fig 715: The line diagram of a compressed air installation [12]
Preloading is a method of increasing the bearing stiffness When air bearings are loaded, the air gap gets smaller, and the pressure in the air film rises Because air is a compressible fluid, it has a spring rate or stiffness Higher pressures are essentially a preload on that air spring If the air gap is considered to be a column with a uniform spring rate, it is evident that the shorter the column, the higher will be its stiffness The factors that determine stiffness in air bearings are the pressure in the air gap, the thickness of the air gap, and the projected surface area of the bearing This wide air gap is also an important function in squeeze film damping, which can be very advantageous in precision systems Air bearings can be preloaded using weights, magnets, or vacuum, or by mounting two air bearings on opposite sides of a guide rail
735 Advantages and Disadvantages of Aerostatic Bearings
Unlike contact roller bearings, air bearings utilize a thin film of pressurized air to provide a zero friction load bearing interface between surfaces that would otherwise be in contact with each other Being of a non-contact nature, air bearings do not have the traditional bearing-related problems of friction, wear, and lubricant handling and offer distinct advantages in precision positioning and high-speed applications This type of bearing shares many of the advantages of aerodynamic bearings In addition, it supports its entire designed load at zero speed
Gas Lubricated Bearings
Of the more important advantages offered by gas lubricants, the low viscosity of gases as compared with liquids can be exploited to obtain a special benefit The extremely low static friction, which externally pressurized bearings can offer, finds applications in torque measuring equipments, dynamic balancing machinery, semiconductor positioning systems, micro or zero gravity trajectory simulators and other instruments requiring near-static conditions [13] The high averaging accuracy of gas bearings is discussed in detail by Speciality Components, one of the manufacturers of air bearings in the United States [13] The high accuracy of motion that can be obtained on using air bearings is equally important in some applications Considerable differences in motion accuracy exist between rolling element bearing supports and air bearing supports In linear slides, for example, rolling element bearings witness a noise error (or rumbling) due to the surface roughness of the ways and eccentric rotation of the rollers or balls On the contrary, air bearings do not suffer from this difficulty The reason for this lies in the absence of surface contact between the bearing parts and the averaging action of the air film over the various local surface irregularities present in the machined surfaces Even the finest of rolling element bearings are orders of magnitude less accurate than air bearings In rotating air bearings, this effect produces high orders of rotational accuracy and smoothness of travel For linear slides, pitch, roll and yaw, errors of much less than a fraction of an arc second are attainable and straightness of travel errors of the order of tenths of nanometers have been achieved The stiffness of a bearing is crucial for application in ultra-precision machines At a zero speed, air bearings provide considerably high stiffness characteristics This same effect is seen at zero or low loads For properly designed and manufactured aerostatic bearings, it is not uncommon to measure a stiffness of the order of several hundred N/ ms (several million pounds per inch) [13] The non-contact nature of hydrostatic and aerostatic bearings allows the bearings to operate at minimal wear The advantage of zero wear can be seen largely in externally pressurized or aerostatic bearings and to some large degree in self-acting or aerodynamic bearings Although some properly designed rolling element bearings can achieve practical wear rates, none can match the zero wear characteristic of aerostatic bearings In the case of aerodynamic bearings, starting and stopping cause some rubbing within the bearing clearance, but this can be alleviated by introducing a pulse of air just as the bearing begins translation [13] Furthermore, as compared with rolling element bearings, air bearings do not suffer from increased wear rates as the speed or load is increased With proper care and maintenance, air bearings can be expected to have an infinite life The use of air as a lubricant also offers certain advantages over other types of lubricants Gas lubrication has found a place of particular importance in circumstances where it is necessary to keep the environment free from contamination caused by conventional lubricants Such situations arise in semiconductor wafer handling systems In these situations, it may be costly or impractical to manufacture a system that can effectively seal off contaminants from oil lubricants used in roller slides The externally pressurized air bearing lends itself well to harsh environments where liquids, dust and contaminants are present The air bearing s great resilience stems from the fact that with a positive pressure existing inside the bearing, all foreign matter is repelled from the critical bearing surfaces [13] Externally pressurized bearings can operate even when they are completely submerged
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