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87 MEMS FABRICATION
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MICROMANUFACTURING PROCESSES
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MEMS devices are made in a fashion similar to computer microchips and electronics components The advantage of this manufacturing process is not simply that small structures can be achieved but also that thousands or even millions of system elements can be fabricated simultaneously [3] This allows systems to be both highly complex and of an extremely low cost of between US$ 4 and US$ 10 per unit of sensor for automobiles [6] Microstructures are usually made by using three distinct microfabrication processes, namely, surface micromachining, bulk micromachining and the LIGA process Methods such as photolithography, material deposition, chemical etching, electroplating and X-ray radiation are often employed to shape mechanical and electronic structures The use of anisotropic etching techniques allows the fabrication of devices with well-defined walls and high aspect ratios [16] The aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of the height of a mechanical structure perpendicular to the substrate width of the minimum feature of the device as shown in Figure 831 [2]
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Fig 831: The definition of aspect ratio [4]
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Modern machining processes are also used in the fabrication of MEMS and microsystems However, most of the processes are not stand-alone systems Developments are now taking place to produce MEMS devices using electrodischarge machining and laser machining For instance, Matsushita has developed a new electrodischarge machine with the capability of making very small,
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precise parts out of almost any material that conducts electricity This machine uses standard machine shop tooling, and is compatible with machine shop production techniques [17]
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871 Bulk Micromachining
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Most of the early silicon products were fabricated using bulk micromachining where chemical etchants were used to attack different planes of a silicon crystal at different rates This approach is based on etching down into a surface, stopping on certain crystal faces, doped regions and etchable films to form the desired structure [16] This method is normally used in the production of microsensors and accelerometers The etching process, either the orientation-independent isotropic etching or the orientation-dependent anisotropic etching is well suited for substrate materials such as silicon, SiC, GaAs and quartz Wet isotropic etchants, plasma etchants and thermal oxidation methods are used to provide geometries that are independent of crystallographic orientations [9] However, isotropic etching or orientation-independent etching is less desirable because of the lack of control over the finished geometry of the workpiece [6] As most substrate materials are not isotropic in their crystalline structure, the etching process is usually orientation dependent The <110> orientation is often favoured because the wafer cleaves more cleanly Thermal oxidation is very common in the fabrication of microelectronics and microsystems There are four types of thin films that are frequently used in microelectronics and microsystems, namely, thermal oxidation for electrical or thermal insulation media, dielectric layers for electrical insulation, polycrystalline silicon for local electrical conduction and metal films for electrical (ohmic) contact and junctions [18] Silicon dioxide is used as an electric insulator as well as for etching masks for silicon and sacrificial layers in surface micromachining The silicon oxide layer is produced in an electric resistance furnace Etching is a process of the selective removal of materials by chemical means Wet etching which involves immersing the wafers in an acidic liquid solution is easy and inexpensive to perform However, it often produces poor quality surfaces due to the presence of bubbles and the flow patterns of the solution On the other hand, dry etching involves the removal of the substrate by gaseous etchants without wet chemicals Some dry etching techniques include plasma, ion milling and reactive ion etch Reactive plasma etching involves chlorine or fluorine ions that diffuse and chemically react with the substrate, forming a volatile compound that is removed by a vacuum system Figure 832 shows the illustration of reactive plasma etching and the product of deep reactive ion etching Deep reactive ion etching involves the use of a high-density plasma source which is capable of producing virtually vertical walls [6] Photolithography involves the use of an optical image and a photosensitive film to produce a pattern on a substrate It is used to set patterns for masks for cavity etching in bulk micromanufacturing or for thin-film deposition and etching of sacrificial layers in surface micromachining as well as for the primary circuitry of electrical signal transduction in sensors and actuators [6] The process of photolithography is clearly illustrated in Figure 833 The substrate is first coated with a layer of a photoresist It is then exposed to a set of lights through a transparent quartz mask
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Microelectro-mechanical Systems (MEMS)
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Fig 832: An illustration of reactive plasma etching and an example of a deep-reactive etched trench [16]
with the desired patterns The patterns on the mask are photographically reduced to the desired microsize from the macrosize The photoresist could be either a positive working resist or a negative working photoresist Positive photoresists turn into soluble substances after exposure to light, whereas negative photoresists act in the opposite way Photoresists are sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light with a maximum sensitivity at a wavelength of 220 nm Examples of negative resists are two-component
Fig 833: The process of photolithography [6]
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