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bis(aryl)azide rubber resists and Kodak KTFR (azide-sensitized polyisotropene rubber) On the other hand, PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) resists and the two-component DQN resist involving diazoquinone ester (DQ) and phenolic novolak resin (N) are examples of positive resists [6] Generally, positive resists provide a clearer edge definition for high-resolution applications After the development stage, the portion of the substrate under the photoresists is protected from the subsequent etching process This way, the predetermined shape is micromachined into the substrate The selective etching process can be stopped midstream to control the shape of the microstructure, using thermal diffusion or ion implantation into the boron wafer, an etch-resistant material Ion implantation involves accelerating ions through a high-voltage beam at an energy as high as one million volts and then choosing the desired dopant by means of a magnetic mass separator as shown in Figure 834 [16] An imbalance between the number of protons and electrons is achieved in the
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Fig 834: The process of ion implantation [6]
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resulting atomic structure In the diffusion process, the dopants are introduced into the substrate in the form of a deposited film or the substrate is exposed to a vapour containing the dopant source Comparatively, the diffusion process is slower than the ion implantation process The process usually takes place at an elevated temperature of 800 1,200 C [16] Figure 835 shows the doping of a silicon substrate by diffusion In addition to the various fabrication techniques that are discussed, there also exist processes such as X-ray lithography and electron-beam or ion-beam lithography X-ray lithography uses shorter wavelengths with a larger depth of focus It is also far Fig 835: Thermal diffusion of a silicon less susceptible to dust and is much costlier than the
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substrate [6]
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conventional photolithography process Both electron-beam and ion-beam lithography produce high resolutions of 2-10 nm The process involves high current density electrons or ion beams that scan a pattern The fact that electron-beam or ion-beam lithography can operate only in vacuum increases the production cost; moreover, the process is relatively slow due to the use of narrow beams [16] In a nutshell, bulk micromachining is straightforward and involves well-documented fabrication processes It is less expensive and is suitable for simple geometry However, the material loss is high, and it is very much limited to a low-aspect ratio in the geometry
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Surface micromachining is the just opposite of the bulk micromachining technique In surface micromachining, materials are added layer by layer on top of the substrate The materials are usually deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) in particular low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) with the aid of a sacrificial layer [6] Sacrificial layers also known as spacer layers are layers of materials that are deposited between structural layers for mechanical separation and isolation The layer is later removed to allow mechanical devices to move relative to the substrate as illustrated in Figure 836 [2] The sacrificial material is usually made of phosphosilicate glass (PSG) or SiO2
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Fig 836: Sacrificial or spacer layers [16]
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The process of surface micromachining begins with the deposition of the sacrificial layer onto the substrate by means of low pressure chemical vapour deposition (Figure 837) In the second step, a mask is produced to cover the surface of the sacrificial layer for subsequent etching to allow the attachment of the future cantilever beam A second mask is made to deposit polysilicon microstructural material The remaining sacrificial material is then etched away to produce the desired structure [6] Figure 838 shows the detailed view of a hinge on a micromirror produced by surface micromachining
Precision Engineering
Fig 837: The surface micromachining procedure [16]
The surface micromachining process is typically slower than bulk micromachining The process is also often associated with problems related to the adhesion of layers, interfacial stresses and stiction The different layers which are bonded together may get delaminated if the surfaces contain excessive thermal and mechanical stress The mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the component materials may induce thermal stresses [6] In addition, residual stress and strain present
Fig 838: A deployed micromirror with a view of the hinge [16]
Microelectro-mechanical Systems (MEMS)
in a bilayer structure result from the thermal oxidation process The stiction effect can deform a thin layer Once the sacrificial layer is removed by wet etching and is rinsed, the rinsing solution may form a water meniscus that results in capillary forces [16] Deep MEMS structures can also be produced by single-crystal silicon reactive etching and metallization (SCREAM) as shown in Figure 839 The anisotropic etch step removes the oxide only at the bottom of the trench which is extended through dry etching
Fig 839: The SCREAM process [16]
In a nutshell, surface micromachining requires the building of layers of materials on the substrate It requires a complex masking design and the use of sacrificial layers This makes the process tedious and expensive Many problems associated with interfacial stress and stiction are present with surface micromachining However, surface micromachining is not constrained by the thickness of silicon wafers and is well suited for complex geometries
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