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In designing a clean-room facility, various parameters such as energy efficiency, cleanliness, cost, temperature uniformity, humidity control, chemical exhaust efficiency, noise control and make up air supply need to be carefully considered Parameters such as temperature, humidity, ground vibration and air quality (clean-room class) have a direct effect on the manufacturing processes and the dimensional measurement Hence, it becomes imperative to have a controlled environment for any type of precision engineering activity As a part of the Precision Engineering initiatives in India, the Central Manufacturing Technology Institute (CMTI) in Bangalore established a Precision Engineering Centre with two major components, namely, a Precision Machine Shop and an underground Metrology Laboratory both with stringent environmental conditions [21] Of the various parameters, temperature has the greatest influence on the achievable level of accuracy A change in the temperature causes linear and nonlinear deformations in workpieces, machine tools and measuring devices It can also result in drifts in electronic instruments and the refractive index of air as in interferometric measurements Temperature variations could be in the form of deviations from the international reference temperature of 20 C, a change in the temperature
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Air exhaust (c)
Air exhaust (d)
Fig 843: Different types of clean room flows: (a) conventional type of clean-room flow, (b) unidirectional flow,
(c) mixed type of clean-room flow and (d) minienvironment [20]
with time and the temperature gradient The international reference temperature plays a major role in absolute length measurements However, for relative measurements such as geometrical (form) accuracy and surface roughness measurements, it is enough to have a stable temperature Humidity has an effect on the corrosion of ferrous components, volumetric changes in materials such as granite and composite materials, electrostatic charging, wavelength of lasers as in interferometric measurements and the physical comfort of the personnel Vibrations are caused by excitations through forces from within the machine and from outside through the foundation Vibrations lead to dynamic deformations which cause displacements between the component and the tool or the transducer, leading to erroneous sizes or measurements Vibrations of frequencies above 10 Hz can be easily cut off using commercially available vibration mounts and tables The
Precision Engineering
Service area Office and support area
Clean room (a)
Service area Office and support area Clean room (b)
Minienvironment Service area Office and support area Clean room (c)
Fig 844: Different types of clean-room layouts: (a) ballroom type, (b) service chase type and
(c) minienvironment type [20]
isolation of low frequency vibrations should be achieved by a judicious selection of the site for the location of the building and the design of the foundation and its isolation Suspended dust particles and oil in the air may lead to deposits on workpieces, surface plates and pickups This will lead to errors in measurements and will also cause problems in the manufacture of optical quality components Dust particles can also affect the performance of sensitive slideways and air bearings Furthermore, the velocity of air in the measuring area should be low enough so as not to disturb the sensitive instrumentation; it should however provide a feeling of comfort to the working personnel The intensity of lighting should be conducive for reading and working without causing any
Microelectro-mechanical Systems (MEMS)
eye strain However, consideration is also to be given to the fact that lighting contributes to the heating load from the point of view of maintainability of stringent temperature tolerances In addition, the noise level of the laboratories is to be maintained within the acceptable level Due to practical considerations, usually different noise levels are specified for metrology laboratories and machine shops A number of studies are being conducted on the airflow characteristics of a clean room It is found that the airflow characteristics of clean rooms are largely affected by the porosity of the access panel and adjustment of dampers, and the cross-contamination varies with the location of the source and the passage of time through the concentration ratio [22] Yang and Fu [23] have indicated that recirculation zones are formed around the operator and workbench due to the movement of the operator The recirculation zones are not favourable to the clean room because they may induce a local turbulent flow and entrain and trap contaminants [23] An example of the specifications of the various parameters under control at the Precision Engineering Centre laboratories at CMTI, Bangalore, is given in Table 85 There are several problems commonly associated with the wrong designing of clean rooms These problems include insufficient air flow, inadequate laminarity, failure to attain a specified pressure level, local stagnation near points of service, big stagnation zones, ineffective chemical vapour exhaust, too high a noise, temperature and humidity variations above specified levels [8]
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