free .net barcode reader library Copyright 2007 by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited Click here for terms of use in Software

Generation Data Matrix in Software Copyright 2007 by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited Click here for terms of use

Copyright 2007 by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited Click here for terms of use
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Precision Engineering
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Fig 21: Relevance tree for cutting tools
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Table 21
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Comparison between the major classes of cutting tool materials [1]
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Carbon steels High-speed steels Tungsten Carbides Cermets Titanium carbides Ceramics Polycrystalline diamond and cubic boron nitride Single-crystal diamond Cast alloys
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Tool Materials for Precision Machining
Table 22
Properties of cutting tool materials [2]
Property
High-speed steel 83 86 HRA 4100 4500 2400 4800 135 8 200 8600 7 15 1300 30 50
Cast alloys 82 84 HRA
Tungsten Titanium Ceramics carbides carbide 90 95 HRA 91 93 HRA 91 95 HRA
Cubic boron nitride 4000 5000 HK 6900 700 < 05 850 3500 95 1300 13
Singlecrystal diamond 7000 8000 HK 6900 1350 < 02 820 1050 3500 95 700 500 2000
Hardness Compressive strength, MPa Transverse rupture strength, MPa Impact strength, J Modulus of elasticity, GPa Density, kg/m3 Volume of hard phase (%) Melting of decomposition temperature, C Thermal conductivity, W/mK Coefficient of thermal expansion, 10 6/ C
1500 2300 4100 5850 3100 3850 2750 4500 1380 2050 1050 2600 1380 1900 034 125 8000 8700 10 20 034 135 520 690 10,000 15,000 70 90 1400 42 125 079 124 310 450 345 950 < 01 310 410
5500 5800 4000 4500 1400 17 100 2000 29
4 65
75 9
6 85
15 48
High-speed steel was discovered by Taylor and White in the early 1900s, and its introduction made possible a considerable increase in cutting speeds (and thus the name) Today, the same speeds are considered to be comparatively low [3] High-speed steel consists of alloying elements, mainly tungsten (about 18%) and chromium (about 4%) [1] It may also contain cobalt, vanadium or molybdenum High-speed steel is relatively inexpensive and tough, but has a limited hot hardness and can only be used for cutting temperatures up to 550 C Cast alloy tools, also known as satellites, were introduced in 1915, and consist of 38 53% cobalt, 30 33% chromium and 10 20% tungsten They have a somewhat better tool life than high-speed steels, under certain conditions However, they are fragile and weak in tension and tend to shatter when subjected to shock load [3] Therefore, cast alloy tools are only used for special applications that involve deep, continuous roughing operations at relatively high feeds and speeds for machining cast iron, malleable iron and hard bronzes
Precision Engineering
22 COATED CARBIDES
The first attempt to make coated carbides was the manufacture of laminated carbides with a coating thickness of 500 m Subsequently, CVD coatings were developed followed by PVD coatings Hybrid coatings are also used nowadays to combine the advantages of both types CVD and PVD coatings are much thinner ranging from sub-micron to 5 m thickness
221 Laminated Carbides
Credit for the first attempt to produce a composite tool goes to Wimet of UK who introduced the laminated or sandwich tools in the mid-sixties These tools however were withdrawn from the market in the late sixties in favour of coated tools with whose vastly superior performance they could not compete The sandwich carbide tool has a thin integral layer of hard metal containing a titanium carbide-cobalt alloy (Figure 22) This rake surface layer, of about 05 mm thickness, has a high
Micrograph shows large light grey grains of TiC in the top half, small grains of WC in the bottom half and white matrix of Co
Fig 22: A laminated carbide insert [3]
compressive strength, is capable of withstanding high temperatures and has a good resistance to diffusion wear, while the base material has a high cold strength and high thermal conductivity which gives a low temperature at the cutting edge and reduces the rate of wear This thickness of 05 mm is enough to withstand flank wear Work done by Basha and Venkatesh [4] has shown that these tools are marginally superior to conventional carbide tools The tool life was found to be greater, and the cutting forces and temperatures lower Crater wear propagation curves revealed that the crater in these tools was a closed one, similar to that of the HSS tool [5] On the other hand, with conventional carbides, crater wear breaks out into the clearance face; the thin layer on the sandwich tool prevents this, and could be a possible reason for its superior performance The rather deep craters in these
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