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tools may be attributed to the unusually large grain size of TiC carbides in the layer and to the presence of cobalt This is in sharp contrast to the fine-grained structure of the cobalt-less coating in coated carbide tools The chip tool contact area as judged from wear propagation curves is lower as compared to that of conventional carbide or coated carbide tools, thus resulting in a higher concentration of stresses which probably explains the rather deep crater obtained in these tools [6]
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222 CVD Coated Carbides
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The development of numerous coatings-substrate combinations has improved the productivity of machining operations by increasing tool life and cutting speed capability of coated tools as compared with that of uncoated tools The improved tool life and speed range capability achieved with coated
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Fig 23: The GC process flow diagram [7]
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Micrograph shows the top view of TiC coated tool The cooling cracks on the surface appear as polygonal grains Pores can also be seen
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Micrograph shows a thin layer of the TiC grains without cobalt matrix The core consists of WC (light grey) and TiC in a cobalt matrix The darkened region at the interface shows the presence of eta phase
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Fig 24: A TiC coated carbide insert
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tools result from a combination of the enhanced wear resistance of the harder more stable refractory compounds which comprise the coating with the toughness and strength of the cement carbide substrate These tools were first developed by Sandvik and were based on a Swiss watch manufacturer s success in getting wear-resistant shafts through titanium carbide coatings The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process used by Sandvik [7] is shown in Figure 23 Titanium tetrachloride vapour, hydrogen and methane are passed over carbide tools heated to temperatures of around 1200 C The reaction between TC14 and CH4 results in the formation of TiC and HCl in which hydrogen acts as an inert gas The TiC is deposited in a very fine form on the carbide substrate A cross-section of a Sandvik TiC coated carbide tool is shown in Figure 24 Eta phase carbides and a cobalt rich layer can be seen at the interface Still another method of coating [8] is by passing titanium tetra iodide at 100 C over carbides heated to 1200 C (Figure 25) Here TiC is formed by migration of carbon from the substrate In this case too eta phase carbides are formed The presence of brittle eta phase carbides is a matter of dispute as regards their possible harmful effects, though there are researchers who advocate their presence Others such as Widia brought out coated carbide tools without the eta phase [as shown in Figure 26 (a)] Figure 26 (b) shows the microstructure of the Kennametal grade KC9010 coated carbide tool that has been developed by Kennametal Titanium nitride coated tools have an intermediate layer consisting of titanium carbide on titanium carbonitride The titanium nitride gives the tool a beautiful golden colour that Fig 25: Apparatus for plating from TiI4 vapour [8] apparently enhances its appearance as can be seen in Figure 27 TiN coated tools have a better wear resistance than do TiC coated tools Speeds of 350 m/min have been successfully used for cutting mild steel Figure 27 shows the newly developed Kennametal grade KC9110 With the co-enriched new substrate, the KC9110 grade is meant for high performance steel machining featuring high wear resistance for machining at higher cutting speeds The special performance of the coatings and the substrate can be summarized as follows:
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Tool Materials for Precision Machining
TiCN/TiN Alpha Al2O3 HTCVD TiCN
5 m
Fig 26: (a) A TiC coated carbide insert without any eta phase carbides (W3Co3C) and free tungsten (Widia) and
(b) a newly developed Kennametal grade KC9010 showing coated layers [9]
18 m
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