Precision Engineering in Software

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Precision Engineering
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(a) no mismatch of thermal conductivities [17]
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Fig 211: A CVD TiC coating on cermets: (a) a cross section and (b) a planar view showing no cracks as there is
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all types of coatings deposited on cermets lead to an improved performance Some of the more commonly used coatings are TiN, TiC, TiCN and Al2O3 These coatings offer not only a high hardness and an excellent refractoriness but they also generally give rise to a lower coefficient of friction, good oxidation resistance and chemical stability and improved thermal properties Coated cermet tools are TiC and/or TiN based having a series of solid solutions of these compounds in various proportions Nickel is usually the basic binder, and cobalt is often added Furthermore, hard materials are also added to bring about specific properties such as improved toughness (Mo), increased wet ability (WC, Mo), better chemical stability (N), controlled grain size (C, TiN, TiCN, Cr3C2), increased resistance against plastic deformation and thermal cracking (N, TaC/NbC), increased shear strength and fatigue strength (VC) and increased resistance to diffusion and abrasive wear (TiCN) Figure 212 illustrates the microstructure of coated cermets (Mitsubishi)
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Fig 212: The microstructure of coated cermets (Mitsubishi)
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225 PVD Coated Carbides
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In the Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) method, the vaporized compound is deposited without any chemical reaction Examples of PVD are sputtering, electrophoresis, electroplating and ion transfer In recent years, the use of PVD methods has increased at an extremely rapid rate owing to reduced costs and, more importantly, because of an increased demand for high-performance materials and coatings that cannot be produced by other methods The film thickness that can be deposited using the PVD technique is 1200 in (003 5 m) Thicker films are sometimes deposited, but the cost-benefit ratio usually acts as a barrier, dictating the use of films thinner than 200 in (5 m) Figure 213 illustrates a generalized PVD system with its three phases of vapour emission from a source, transport to, and condensation on the substrate Also depicted are a number of system requirements to operate the process, as well as options that enable reactive deposition, a plasmaenhanced vapour and ion bombardment of the growing film The most widely used commercial PVD processes are vacuum arc evaporation, electron beam evaporation, and high rate magnetron sputtering These are commonly referred to as ion-assisted processes and can be used to deposit coatings by non-reactive and reactive means
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Fig 213: A generalized PVD system
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In the reactive PVD method, carbides, nitrides, oxides, carbonitrides, and many other types of compounds are deposited by introducing a reactive gas (simple hydrocarbons such as CH4, C2H4; nitrogen; oxygen; and other gases) into the physical vapour stream Reactions between the gas and physical vapour can occur at the source surface, in transit, or at the substrate surface, as well as on the chamber walls and on other surfaces In most processes, reactions at the vapor source are minimal owing to the nature of the process and/or the requirements of the process designer In the vacuum arc evaporation technique, surface reactions often take place at the source These reactions do not significantly affect the vaporization rates because most of the vapor release occurs from beneath the source surface In electron beam evaporation, the maximum operating pressure at the source is too low at typical evaporation rates for significant reactions to occur For reactive planar magnetron sputtering, cathode vaporization rates are often reduced by a factor of 10 or more at a given power input when oxide, nitride, or carbide layers form on the sputtered surface To avoid such a reduction in rates, formation of reacted surface layers is often inhibited by enclosing the cathode in a housing having a vapour emission slot and by simultaneously directing reactive gases towards the substrates Either the reactive gas flow or the cathode power level must then be controlled to maintain a proper balance of metal and gas reactants arriving at the substrates to achieve the desired film composition, while at the same time maintaining a sufficiently low concentration of reactive gas at the cathode to prevent the formation of rate-limiting reaction films Automatic process control is required to achieve the continuous monitoring and short response time necessary to maintain the balance between metal and gas reactants at the substrates The use of reactive PVD hard coatings, especially titanium nitride (TiN), to improve the performance of cutting tools has increased at an exceptionally high rate since 1980 Titanium nitride is a refractory material that has hardness greater than HRC 80, and is approximately three times harder than the typical high-speed tool steels A TiN coating provides resistance to chemical deterioration because it is a stable (almost inert) material It also prevents chip welding in cutting tools owing to the antigalling properties of the coating Titanium nitride has a lower coefficient of friction than do hard chromium coatings, thus improving chip flow and reducing friction between the tool and the work piece The PVD process does not cause any heat-related damage to the cutting tool edge, so the strength of the coated tool is nearly equal to that of the substrate PVD can be applied only to limited substrate shapes; for example, it is impossible to coat the inner surface of a hole using the PVD technique The coating is finer grained, smoother, and more lubricious Generally, PVD coatings are better suited for precision HSS, HSS-CO, brazed WC, or solid WC tools In fact, PVD is the only viable method for coating brazed tools because the CVD method uses temperatures that melt the brazed joint and soften the steel shanks Brazed WC tools should be stress relieved before being subjected to PVD coating to minimize tool body distortion The steel shank of a rotary tool with a brazed solid WC head is sometimes finish ground between centres after coating to maintain its roundness to within 001 mm PVD coatings effectively conform to the sharp edges of finishing tooling and are generally smoother than CVD coatings, which build up on sharp corners PVD
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