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coatings are preferred for positive rake and grooved inserts because they produce compressive stresses at the surface Thin PVD coatings are popular for use in milling applications because they provide a greater shock resistance The coating/substrate compatibility is improved by applying one or more intermediate layers between the surface PVD TiN/TiCN/TiN coating and the substrate to balance (35 m) chemical bonding and thermal expansion coefficients, resulting in a multi-layered coating system which optimizes the tool performance by making it resistant to several kinds of wear Multi-layer coatings may be produced by combining the CVD and PVD 5 m methods; in such cases, the CVD process improves the adhesion between the substrate Fig 214: Microstructure of a Kennametal grade KT315 and the first coating layer, while the showing the coated layers [10] subsequent PVD coating layers provide a fine-grained microstructure with a better wear resistance and toughness Multi-layer coatings are very commonly used in turning and boring operations because they provide the best combination of properties Figure 214 shows PVD coated layers on a KT 315 grade carbide insert [20] The ultimate in coating materials is diamond, which is the hardest known material Diamond is not, however, suitable for most steel-cutting operations, as it breaks down chemically at high cuttingedge temperatures Its nearest equivalent for steel machining is ultra-hard cubic boron nitride, which has been produced as similarly bonded, carbide-backed layers, as well as solid indexable inserts Intensive research is being aimed at the introduction of CVD and/or PVD coating of cubic boron nitride, and it is likely that a commercial product could emerge
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Ceramic tools cannot compete favourably with the best grades of carbides, and it was not until the 1950s, when new techniques for their manufacture were developed, that the significant application of oxide ceramic tools to machining was made Ceramics are artificial man-made products obtained by sintering pure aluminia (Al2O3) at a high temperature (1,500 1,900 C) but below its melting point at a pressure of 150 200 atm Microstructure (Figure 215) is a very important factor that affects the cutting properties of oxide ceramic tools Hardness, wear resistance and mechanical properties are determined based on microstructure The optimum cutting performance is obtained using pure oxide ceramic tools with as small a grain size as possible However, the strength value is affected, as the maintenance of
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smaller grains would mean lowering the firing time or temperature, which can thus give rise to a decrease in the density of the tool The crystal growth of pure oxide ceramics can be affected by the addition of grain growth inhibitors such as MgO which keep the grain size of sintered pure oxide at low values of 5 10 m Recently, ceramic tools with an average grain size as low as 3 4 m have been manufactured Density is closely related to the method of manufacture From theoretical calculations based on X-ray data of the crystal structure of alpha-alumina, the theoretical density was calculated to be 390, and some data yielded a value as high as 400 The porosity of pure oxide ceramic tools, whether hot sintered or cold sintered, depends on the firing temperature The higher the firing temperature, the denser is the product obtained, but a higher firing temperature necessitates a longer firing time, which in turn results in an accelerated grain growth Hence, it becomes essential to use grain growth inhibitors such as MgO Porosity and therefore density have a considerable influence on tool life The lower the porosity, the higher is the tool life Oxide ceramics retain their hardness at higher temperatures as compared with other materials Ceramics have a very low tensile strength of 370 600 N/mm 2 Hence, they need to be supported on steel shanks as in the case of carbides, and the shank design detailed earlier is also valid for these tools Because of its high compressive strength and low bending strength, negative rakes for ceramic tools are essential, except in finishing operations of plastic and graphite where a positive rake is used Ceramics have a low coefficient of thermal expansion so that heat is conducted to a great depth in the tool as in the case of HSS tools This property has the further Fig 215: Electron micrographs of a ceramic tool, the lower advantage that thermal shock is reduced one at a much higher magnification showing the But the low coefficient of expansion gives non-uniformity in grain size, a factor that is detrimental to tool life Note that the Al2O3 grains rise to difficulties when brazing tool bits on are not bonded as in the case of sintered carbides to steel shanks, and these difficulties have where a binder is essential [3] largely contributed to the development of clamped tools not only for ceramic tools but for carbide tools as well Oxide ceramics have two other important chemical properties, namely, (a) a high resistance to oxidation and (b) a low affinity for most metals, which reduce the tendency to adhesion and also bring about reduction in friction Resistance to cratering is therefore high Oxide ceramics however function well only at high cutting speeds preferably above 500 m/min The rate of chip removal is high, necessitating machine tools of a larger power capacity and a high
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