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Shaw [20] has related the exponential increase in the specific energy in ultra-precision diamond grinding (UPDG) and ultra-precision single-point diamond turning (SPDT) to the undeformed chip thickness as well when the effective depth of cut becomes less than the radius (the size effect) at the tool or grit tip This results in the chip forming model shifting from one involving concentrated shear (depth of cut or undeformed chip thickness is greater than the tool radius) to a micro extrusion mechanism (chip thickness is less than the tool or grit tip) In the micro extrusion mechanism, more energy is needed to bring a large volume of material to the fully plastic state in order for a relatively small amount of material to escape as a chip In other words, the much greater rate of increase in u with a decrease in the undeformed chip thickness in the microextrusion mechanism is primarily due to the relatively large ratio of the volume deformed to the volume removed [21]
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344 Temperature During Grinding
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The high value of specific energy during grinding compared to other conventional machining processes is an indication of the large amount of heat generated relative to the amount of material removed The temperature rise during grinding should be considered carefully because it can adversely affect surface properties such as surface damage, burn and heat cracking, can introduce residual stresses and cause distortion by differential thermal expansion/contraction These phenomena can affect workpiece dimensional accuracy The heat generated will also reduce the life of the wheel In Guideline IV [22], it is stated that If you can, grind wet , implying that a coolant be used if possible when grinding to remove heat before it penetrates either into the workpiece or into the wheel rim The surface temperature during grinding is related to process variables by the following expression [1]:
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This means that temperature increases with increasing wheel depths of cut (d ), wheel diameter (D) and wheel speed (V ) and decreases with increasing work speeds (v) The wheel depth of cut has the greatest influence on temperature The aforementioned expression does not take account of the effect of specific energy, thermal workpiece properties and type of abrasive used A more comprehensive expression for estimating the mean surface temperature in grinding was given by Chandrasekar et al [23] and Shaw [24] as follows: qd ~
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Ru ( vd ) Vl ( k C )
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where R is the fraction of the total energy dissipated in grinding going to the workpiece (see Table 31), u is the specific grinding energy, v is the table or work speed, d is the wheel depth of cut (downfeed), V is the wheel speed, l is the wheel-work contact length, K is the thermal conductivity of the workpiece, and rC is the volume specific heat of workpiece
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Mechanics of Materials Cutting Table 31
Method Dry fine grinding Fine grinding with fluid Dry very coarse grinding
Approximation of the fraction of heat (4) going to the workpiece [21]
Material Steel Steel Ceramics or glass Steel Steel Ceramics or glass Steel Types of wheel Al2O3 or SiC CBN Diamond Al2O3 or SiC CBN Diamond Al2O3 or SiC Approximate value of R 08 05 04 05 03 02 005
The aforementioned expressions show that process parameters, type of abrasives and workpiece properties as well as grinding methods influence the amount of heat going to the workpiece during grinding A grinding fluid plays an important role in removing heat generated during the grinding operation Apart from evacuation of the heat generated, the grinding fluid also functions as a lubricant to reduce friction, and carries the swarf away from the grinding interface [5][22][25]
345 Grinding Wheel Wear
The wear of a grinding wheel somehow cannot be avoided when grinding materials, and the rate of this wear plays an important role in determining the efficiency of the grinding process and the quality of the workpiece as is the case with cutting tools According to Jackson [26] and Malkin [12], wear mechanisms in grinding wheels appear to be similar to that of single-point cutting tools, the only difference being the size of the swarf particles generated They observed that the wear behaviour is similar to that found in other wear processes (Figure 328); high initial wear followed by steady-state wear A third accelerating wear regime usually indicates catastrophic wear of the grinding wheel, which means that the wheel will need to be dressed This type of wear is usually accompanied by thermal damage to the surface of the ground workpiece Grinding wheel wear is most often expressed in terms of the G-ratio which is the workpiece volume removed (Vw) divided by the unit volume of the wheel wear (Vs )
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