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Fig 435: Ductile streaks obtained on Si during
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aspheric generation [35]
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Fig 436: Massive formation of ductile streaks on
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Ge during aspheric generation with a resinoid-bonded diamond wheel [35]
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earlier Samples 1 and 2 had a similar surface finish after grinding and were polished with fresh and old polishing powders, respectively Because sample 3 had the most ductile streaks after grinding, its curve is the lowest one in Figure 437, although old polishing powder was used
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45 ULTRA-PRECISION GRINDING
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451 Various Ultra-precision Machines and Their Development
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Advancement in technology has now made it possible to machine hard and brittle materials to a very close tolerance Ultra-precision machining has been developed, and a new machining concept known as ductile mode machining has been introduced Using this machine coupled with the ductile mode theory, a mirror-like finish can be achieved on the workpiece without the need to polish it [67] [66] In ductile mode machining, feeds and depth of the cut have to be very Fig 437: Roughness (Ra) of a polished aspheric glass surface small of the order of 10 nm and 1 m, versus the polishing time [64] [65]
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respectively [68] With the ultra-precision machine set-up, full ductile mode machining can be achieved, and the surface finish is mirror-like without the need to have subsequent processes such as polishing [67] [69] Most of the ultra-precision machines available in the market are equipped with machining systems that adopt either single-point diamond tools or multi-point abrasive (grinding) wheels However, in some cases, both machining systems can be incorporated into one machine on customer request for enabling both single- and multi-point abrasive machining operations Figure 438 shows a typical construction of both ultra-precision machines According to Chapman [69] and Schulz and Moriwaki [70], an ultra-precision machine is defined as a machine that has machining systems with the following movement accuracies: (i) slide geometric accuracy of less than 1 m (ii) spindle error motions of less than 50 nm (iii) control and feedback resolutions of less than 10 nm With the aforementioned movement accuracies, it is expected that the ultra-precision machine will be able to generate the following workpiece accuracies:
Fig 438: A typical construction of a (a) two-axis an ultra-precision single-point diamond turning machine [71],
(b) four-axis an ultra-precision diamond grinding machine (Courtesy Toshiba Machine Co, Ltd)
(i) a dimensional accuracy in the range of some microns (ii) a surface form accuracy in the range of 100 nm or better (iii) a surface texture in the range of 5 nm or better
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In order to satisfy the aforementioned requirements, the machine must exhibit a high degree of thermal stability, stiffness, damping, smoothness of motion and must also be integrated with an ultra-precision metrology system in the machine tool but isolated from the response of the machine tool during machining [71] There are at least five main players that develop such machines in the world market, and they are Moore Nanotechnology Systems, Precitech, Toyoda, Nachi Fujikoshi and Toshiba [69] These machines are available in two- to five-axes configurations as shown in Figure 439 Usually, the grinding wheel is attached on a vertical spindle, the Y-axis, to perform the grinding operation on the workpiece where it is vacuum chucked on the main horizontal spindle Depending on the number of axes, this kind of machine can produce different types of surfaces such as plano, cylinders, spheres, aspheres and conical sections, Fresnel and diffractives, free-form and microstructures (Figures 440, 441, and 442) Applications of these surfaces include hard discs, photocopier drums, night vision devices, lenses (for camera, charged-couple-device (CCD), CD and DVD pick up), free-form optics (for laser printers, scanners and conformal military optics radar systems) and displays for notebooks/mobile phones, street sign reflectors [71] Precitech s OPTIMUM 2800 (Figure 443) is a high performance, two-axes, computer controlled, ultra-precision, contouring machine specifically designed for single-point diamond turning and grinding of ultra-precision optical components The machine is built on a natural granite base and uses a pneumatic vibration isolation system The hydrostatic oil bearing slideways are constructed in an offset T configuration in which the X-axis (spindle) slide represents the cross-arm of the T , and the Z-axis (tool holding) slide represents the stem of the T Both the X and Z axes have 200
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