vb.net barcode reader code Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydrostatic Bearings in Software

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645 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydrostatic Bearings
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A hydrostatic bearing holds much attraction to the engineer because machine parts supported on hydrostatically lubricated slideways or shafts move with an incomparable smoothness This apparent perfection of motion is derived from the complete separation of the solid sliding surfaces with a fluid film At no point do the solid surfaces make any physical contact The thin fluid film separating the surfaces is always larger than the height of any surface irregularities, and as a result, there is a complete absence of sticking friction A mass supported on a hydrostatic bearing will silently glide down the smallest inclination, an effect that is most striking with very large machines Most hydrostatic bearings require an additional pump to be incorporated into the machine to supply a liquid under pressure to the bearing This and the associated oil reservoir may increase the cost of an application compared with other types of bearings, which might not require an external supply In some cases, there will be a high-pressure source of liquid used for another function in the machine which will be capable of also supplying the bearing system This would often be the case if the machine has hydraulic equipments for actuation, clamping or spindle drive Hydrostatic bearings may prove to be less expensive besides offering a superior performance and reliability In addition to the space and cost requirements of the external supply, the requirement for control restrictors and effective filtration to prevent blockages in the supply need to be taken into consideration Among the attractive features of hydrostatic bearings is their ability to operate at a zero speed and high speeds with any load capacity because the supply pressure determines the load capacity It is even possible to design the stiffness independently of the load This allows the designer to determine the bearing performance to suit the requirements of the machine In machine tools, it is important that the bearings are not subject to wear, which makes it impossible to maintain tolerances and production rate Wear also reduces the resistance to chatter in metal cutting operations There are obvious applications where plain hybrid bearings would have performance advantages These applications include high-speed machines where hydrodynamic journal bearings tend to suffer from whirl instability at low eccentricity ratios, as in generator sets, turbines and vertical spindle pumps for large thermal power installations and also for machine tools which are subject to intermittent cutting operations, shock loads and occasional heavy overloads Table 68 shows the advantages and disadvantages of hydrostatic bearings
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262 Table 68
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Precision Engineering Advantages and disadvantages of hydrostatic bearings
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Advantages Disadvantages External pressurized source required or unless self feeding Cost and maintenance of the external system Joule Thompson thermal distortion due to internal cooling Relatively high cost Low crash tolerances Pressure control required
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Low friction and torque, low thermal influence High stiffness at low speeds for hydrostatic bearing Extremely high load-carrying capacity at low speeds High positional accuracy in high-speed and light-load application Vibration stability Consistency of location Operable at a wide temperature range so long as water does not condense Performance closely predictable Minimal effect on surroundings, environmentally friendly No wear Long life
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646 Application of Hydrostatic Bearings
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Hydrostatically, lubricated bearings are used in applications with extremely heavy loads and extremely low speeds such as in large telescopes and radar tracking units It is also successfully applied in a number of dynamometer applications that require a high accuracy and great sensitivity [6] The
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Fig 649: The Hale telescope at Mt Palomar uses hydrostatic bearings
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Rolling Element, Hydrodynamic and Hydrostatic Bearings
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Mt Palomar telescope in the US that weighs 1,000,000 lbs and moves at a speed equal to that of the rotating Earth is supported by externally pressurized bearings and uses only a 1/12 hp motor (Figure 649) Figure 649 shows the 102 in diameter hydrostatic journal bearing that is used in large-size cascade mills The application of hydrostatic bearings can also be traced to marine engines and radar systems In marine engines, the main and big end bearings consist of indium-plated lead-bronze lined, steel shells These bearings are Fig 650: A finished 102 in diameter hydrostatic journal precision manufactured and are ready bearing mounted in its support pedestal [20] for fitting The engines are equipped with a force-feed lubrication system with oil filters of the full-flow type and an oil cooler The AN/FPS-24 search radar that serves as the backbone of the United States air defense uses hydrostatic bearings to support its 85 tonne antenna (Figure 651) Goodyear Aerospace developed the bearings
Fig 651: The AN/FPS-24 search radar [21]
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