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Table 73 Power factor 0850 and higher 08 to 0849 075 to 0799 07 to 0749
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749 A balanced, three-phase Y-connected source with
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230-Vrms line voltages has a balanced Y-connected load of 3+j 4 per phase For the case that the lines have zero impedance, nd all three line currents and the total real power absorbed by the load
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750 The circuit shown in Figure P750 is a Y- -Y
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connected three-phase circuit The primaries of the transformers are wye-connected, the secondaries are delta-connected, and the load is wye-connected Find the currents IRP , IW P , IBP , IA , IB , and IC
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~ IRP 460 0 V 4:1 ~ IA 10 _ j7 4:1 10 _ j7 _ j7 10 4:1 ~ IB ~ IC
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~ IWP 460 2 3 V
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~ IBP 460 _2 3 V
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Penalty None 1% 2% 3% Figure P750
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Ideal transformers
751 For the circuit shown in Figure P751, nd the
currents I A , I B , I C , and I N , and the real power dissipated by the load
~ IA 220 0 V 40 j10 20 _ j5 j5 20
The Y-Y circuit shown in Figure P748 is representative of a three-phase motor load Assume rms values a Find the total power supplied to the motor b Find the power converted to mechanical energy if the motor is 80 percent ef cient c Find the power factor d Does the company risk facing a power factor penalty on its next bill if all the motors in the factory are similar to this one
~ IB 110 2 3 V ~ IC 110 _2 3 V
W R 120 0
+ _ + _ + _
j6 5 5 j6
In j6
120 2 3
Figure P751
120 _2 3
Figure P748
PART II
ELECTRONICS
8 Semiconductors and Diodes 9 Transistor Fundamentals 10 Transistor Ampli ers and Switches 11 Power Electronics 12 Operational Ampli ers 13 Digital Logic Circuits 14 Digital Systems 15 Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements
Semiconductors and Diodes
his chapter introduces semiconductor-based electronic devices, and in so doing, it provides a transition between the fundamentals of electrical circuit analysis and the study of electronic circuits Although the theme of this chapter may seem somewhat different from the circuit analysis of the rst seven chapters, the analysis of electrical circuits is still at the core of the material For example, the operation of diodes will be explained in part using linear circuit models containing resistors and voltage and current sources In fact, the primary emphasis in this and the next two chapters will be the use of linear circuit models for understanding and analyzing the behavior of more complex nonlinear electronic devices; we show how it is possible to construct models of devices having nonlinear i-v characteristics by means of linear circuits The alternative to this approach would be to conduct an in-depth study of the physics of each class of device: diodes, bipolar transistors, eld-effect devices, and other types of semiconductors Such an approach is neither practical nor fruitful from the viewpoint of this book, since it would entail lengthy explanations and require a signi cant background in semiconductor physics Thus, the approach here will be rst to provide a qualitative understanding of the physics of each family of devices, and then to describe the devices in terms of their i-v characteristics and simple circuit models, illustrating their analysis and applications The chapter starts with a discussion of semiconductors and of the pn junction and the semiconductor diode The second part of this chapter is devoted to a study
8
Semiconductors and Diodes
of diode circuit models, and numerous practical applications By the end of 8, you should have accomplished the following objectives:
A qualitative understanding of electrical conduction in semiconductor materials The ability to explain the i-v characteristic of a semiconductor diode (or of a pn junction) The ability to use the ideal, offset, and piecewise linear diode models in simple circuits The ability to analyze diode recti er, peak limiter, peak detector, and regulator circuits and the behavior of LEDs and photocells
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
Figure 81 Lattice structure of silicon, with four valence electrons
+ = Hole Electron jumps to fill hole
The net effect is a hole moving to the right A vacancy (or hole) is created whenever a free electron leaves the structure This hole can move around the lattice if other electrons replace the free electron
Figure 82 Free electrons and holes in the lattice structure
This section brie y introduces the mechanism of conduction in a class of materials called semiconductors Semiconductors are materials consisting of elements from group IV of the periodic table and having electrical properties falling somewhere between those of conducting and of insulating materials As an example, consider the conductivity of three common materials Copper, a good conductor, has a conductivity of 059 106 S/cm; glass, a common insulator, may range between 10 16 and 10 13 S/cm; while silicon, a semiconductor, has a conductivity that varies from 10 8 to 10 1 S/cm You see, then, that the name semiconductor is an appropriate one A conducting material is characterized by a large number of conduction-band electrons, which have a very weak bond with the basic structure of the material Thus, an electric eld easily imparts energy to the outer electrons in a conductor and enables the ow of electric current In a semiconductor, on the other hand, one needs to consider the lattice structure of the material, which in this case is characterized by covalent bonding Figure 81 depicts the lattice arrangement for silicon (Si), one of the more common semiconductors At suf ciently high temperatures, thermal energy causes the atoms in the lattice to vibrate; when suf cient kinetic energy is present, some of the valence electrons break their bonds with the lattice structure and become available as conduction electrons These free electrons enable current ow in the semiconductor It should be noted that in a conductor valence electrons have a very loose bond with the nucleus and are therefore available for conduction to a much greater extent than valence electrons in a semiconductor One important aspect of this type of conduction is that the number of charge carriers depends on the amount of thermal energy present in the structure Thus, many semiconductor properties are a function of temperature The free valence electrons are not the only mechanism of conduction in a semiconductor, however Whenever a free electron leaves the lattice structure, it creates a corresponding positive charge within the lattice Figure 82 depicts the situation in which a covalent bond is missing because of the departure of a free electron from the structure The vacancy caused by the departure of a free electron is called a hole Note that whenever a hole is present, we have, in effect, a positive charge The positive charges also contribute to the conduction process, in the sense that if a valence-band electron jumps to ll a neighboring hole, thereby neutralizing a positive charge, it correspondingly creates a new hole at a different location Thus, the effect is equivalent to that of a positive charge moving to the
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