vb.net barcode reader source code a D1 vS (t) + _ D4 b Bridge rectifier a AC in b c DC out d c RL d D2 in Software

Encoder QR in Software a D1 vS (t) + _ D4 b Bridge rectifier a AC in b c DC out d c RL d D2

a D1 vS (t) + _ D4 b Bridge rectifier a AC in b c DC out d c RL d D2
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Figure 844 Full-wave bridge recti er
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a + vS (t) _ D1 D2 c RL d iL D3
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b During the positive half-cycle of vS (t), D1 and D3 are forward-biased and iL = vS (t)/RL (ideal diodes) a + vS (t) _ D2 D1 RL d c D4 iL D3
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b During the negative half-cycle of vS (t), D2 and D4 are forward-biased and iL = vS (t)/RL (ideal diodes)
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Figure 845 Operation of bridge recti er
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For example, the lter could be characterized by 0 = 2 2 rad/s A simple low-pass lter circuit similar to those studied in 6 that accomplishes this task is shown in Figure 847
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integrated circuit is a collection of electronic devices interconnected on a single silicon chip
Part II
Electronics
30 20 RL iL (t) (V) 10 vs (t) (V) 0
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 001 002 t (s) 003 0 001 002 t (s) 003 RL iL (t) (V)
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 001 002 t (s) 003
10 20 30
Figure 846 (a) Unrecti ed source voltage; (b) Recti ed load voltage (ideal diodes); (c) Recti ed load voltage (ideal and offset diodes)
170 + vAC(t) + _ Bridge rectifier vR(t) _ Anti-ripple filter Volts vL, Load voltage 470 F
+ vL _
v(t), Unfiltered rectifier output 0 833 1667 25 t (ms)
Figure 847 Bridge recti er with lter circuit
Diode Thermometer
Problem:
FOCUS ON MEASUREMENTS
An interesting application of a diode, based on the diode equation, is an electronic thermometer The concept is based on the empirical observation that if the current through a diode is nearly constant, the offset voltage is nearly a linear function of temperature, as shown in Figure 848(a) 1 Show that iD in the circuit of Figure 848(b) is nearly constant in the face of variations in the diode voltage, vD This can be done by computing the percent change in iD for a given percent change in vD Assume that vD changes by 10 percent, from 06 to 066 V 2 On the basis of the graph of Figure 848(a), write an equation for vD (T ) of the form vD = T +
8
Semiconductors and Diodes
VD (V)
08 06 04
10 k + + vD _
02 0 50 100 T (C)
15 V
iD (b)
Solution:
1 With reference to the circuit of Figure 848(a), the current iD is iD = For vD = 08 V(0 ), iD = 142 mA vD = 07 V(50 ), iD = 143 mA vD = 06 V(100 ), iD = 144 mA The percent change in vD over the full scale of the thermometer (assuming the midrange temperature of 50 to be the reference value) is: 01 V 100 = 143% 07 V The corresponding percent change in iD is: vD % = 001 mA 100 = 07% 143 mA Thus, iD is nearly constant over the range of operation of the diode thermometer 2 The diode voltage versus temperature equation can be extracted from the graph of Figure 848(a): iD % = vD (T ) = (08 06) V T + 08 V = 002T + 08 V (0 100) C 15 vD mA 10
Comments The graph of Figure 848(a) was obtained experimentally by
calibrating a commercial diode in both hot water and an ice bath The circuit of Figure 848(b) is rather simple, and one could fairly easily design a better constant-current source; however, this example illustrates than an inexpensive diode can serve quite well as the sensing element in an electronic thermometer
DC Power Supplies, Zener Diodes, and Voltage Regulation The principal application of recti er circuits is in the conversion of AC to DC power A circuit that accomplishes this conversion is usually called a DC power
Part II
Electronics
supply In power supply applications, transformers are employed to obtain an AC voltage that is reasonably close to the desired DC supply voltage DC power supplies are very useful in practice: Many familiar electrical and electronic appliances (eg, radios, personal computers, TVs) require DC power to operate For most applications, it is desirable that the DC supply be as steady and ripple-free as possible To ensure that the DC voltage generated by a DC supply is constant, DC supplies contain voltage regulators, that is, devices that can hold a DC load voltage relatively constant in spite of possible uctuations in the DC supply This section describes the fundamentals of voltage regulators A typical DC power supply is made up of the components shown in Figure 849 In the gure, a transformer is shown connecting the AC source to the recti er circuit to permit scaling of the AC voltage to the desired level For example, one might wish to step the 110-V rms line voltage down to 24 V rms by means of a transformer prior to recti cation and ltering, to eventually obtain a 12-VDC regulated supply (regulated here means that the output voltage is a DC voltage that is constant and independent of load and supply variations) Following the step-down transformer are a bridge recti er, a lter capacitor, a voltage regulator, and, nally, the load
110 vAC Line + voltage _
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