vb.net barcode reader source code Semiconductors and Diodes in Software

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Semiconductors and Diodes
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10 5 Volts 0 5 10 0 02 04 t (s) 06 08 1
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Figure 862 Two-sided (ideal diode) clipper input and output voltages
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The effect of finite diode resistance on the limiter circuit rS +
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+ v (t) _ S
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on-off state is still based on whether [RL /(rS + RL )]vS (t) is greater or less than Vmax When D1 is open, the load voltage is still given by vL (t) = RL vS (t) rS + R L (828)
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rD RL + Vmax
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Figure 863 Circuit model for the diode clipper (piecewise linear diode model)
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When D1 is conducting, however, the corresponding circuit is as shown in Figure 863 The primary effect the diode resistance has on the load waveform is that some of the source voltage will reach the load even when the diode is conducting This is most easily veri ed by applying superposition; it can be readily shown that the load voltage is now composed of two parts, one due to the voltage Vmax , and one proportional to vS (t): vL (t) = RL rS rD RL Vmax + vS (t) rD + (RL rS ) rS + (rD RL ) (829)
It may easily be veri ed that as rD 0, the expression for vL (t) is the same as for the ideal diode case The effect of the diode resistance on the limiter circuit is depicted in Figure 864 Note how the clipping has a softer, more rounded appearance
10 5 Volts 0
5 10 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 t (s) 07 08 09
Figure 864 Voltages for the diode clipper (piecewise linear diode model)
The Diode Peak Detector
Another common application of semiconductor diodes, the peak detector, is very similar in appearance to the half-wave recti er with capacitive ltering described in an earlier section One of its more classic applications is in the demodulation of
Part II
Electronics
amplitude-modulated (AM) signals We study this circuit in the following, Focus on Measurements box
Peak Detector Circuit for Capacitive Displacement Transducer
In 4, a capacitive displacement transducer was introduced in Focus on Measurements: Capacitive Displacement Transducer and Microphone It took the form of a parallel-plate capacitor composed of a xed plate and a movable plate The capacitance of this variable capacitor was shown to be a function of displacement, that is, it was shown that a movable-plate capacitor can serve as a linear transducer Recall the expression derived in 4 C= 8854 10 3 A x
FOCUS ON MEASUREMENTS
where C is the capacitance in pF, A is the area of the plates in mm2 , and x is the (variable) distance in mm If the capacitor is placed in an AC circuit, its impedance will be determined by the expression ZC = so that ZC = x j 8854 10 3 A 1 j C
Thus, at a xed frequency , the impedance of the capacitor will vary linearly with displacement This property may be exploited in the bridge circuit of Figure 865, where a differential-pressure transducer is shown made of two movable-plate capacitors If the capacitance of one of these capacitors increases as a consequence of a pressure difference across the transducer, the capacitance of the other must decrease by a corresponding amount, at least for small displacements (you may wish to refer to Example 44 for a picture of this transducer) The bridge is excited by a sinusoidal source
d R1 + ~ a b vout + vS(t) R2 Cbc(x) c Cdb(x)
Figure 865 Bridge circuit for displacement transducer
Using phasor notation, in 4 we showed that the output voltage of the bridge circuit is given by x Vout (j ) = VS (j ) 2d
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Semiconductors and Diodes
provided that R1 = R2 Thus, the output voltage will vary as a scaled version of the input voltage in proportion to the displacement A typical vout (t) is displayed in Figure 866 for a 005-mm triangle diaphragm displacement, with d = 05 mm and VS a 50-Hz sinusoid with 1-V amplitude Clearly, although the output voltage is a function of the displacement, x, it is not in a convenient form, since the displacement is proportional to the amplitude of the sinusoidal peaks
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