vb.net barcode reader source code Figure 873 Photodiode i-v curves in Software

Making Quick Response Code in Software Figure 873 Photodiode i-v curves

Figure 873 Photodiode i-v curves
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Figure 874 Photodiode circuit symbol
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Also displayed in Figure 873 are three load lines, which depict the three modes of operation of a photodiode Curve L1 represents normal diode operation, under forward bias Note that the operating point of the device is in the positive i, positive v ( rst) quadrant of the i-v plane; thus, the diode dissipates positive
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Semiconductors and Diodes
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Figure 875 Lightemitting diode (LED) circuit symbol
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power in this mode, and is therefore a passive device, as we already know On the other hand, load line L2 represents operation of the photodiode as a solar cell; in this mode, the operating point is in the negative i, positive v, or fourth, quadrant, and therefore the power dissipated by the diode is negative In other words, the photodiode is generating power by converting light energy to electrical energy Note further that the load line intersects the voltage axis at zero, meaning that no supply voltage is required to bias the photodiode in the solar-cell mode Finally, load line L3 represents the operation of the diode as a light sensor: when the diode is reverse-biased, the current owing through the diode is determined by the light intensity; thus, the diode current changes in response to changes in the incident light intensity The operation of the photodiode can also be reversed by forward-biasing the diode and causing a signi cant level of recombination to take place in the depletion region Some of the energy released is converted to light energy by emission of photons Thus, a diode operating in this mode emits light when forward-biased Photodiodes used in this way are called light-emitting diodes (LEDs); they exhibit a forward (offset) voltage of 1 to 2 volts The circuit symbol for the LED is shown in Figure 875 Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is one of the more popular substrates for creating LEDs; gallium phosphide (GaP) and the alloy GaAs1 x Px are also quite common Table 81 lists combinations of materials and dopants used for common LEDs and the colors they emit The dopants are used to create the necessary pn junction
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Table 81 LED materials and wavelengths Material GaAs GaAs GaP GaP GaP GaAs06 P04 GaAs035 P065 GaAs015 P085 N N Dopant Zn Si N N Zn, O Wavelength 900 nm 910 1,020 nm 570 nm 590 nm 700 nm 650 nm 632 nm 589 nm Color Infrared Infrared Green Yellow Red Red Orange Yellow
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The construction of a typical LED is shown in Figure 876, along with the schematic representation for an LED A shallow pn junction is created with electrical contacts made to both p and n regions As much of the upper surface of the p material is uncovered as possible, so that light can leave the device unimpeded It is important to note that, actually, only a relatively small fraction of the emitted light leaves the device; the majority stays inside the semiconductor A photon that stays inside the device will eventually collide with an electron in the valence band, and the collision will force the electron into the conduction band, emitting an electron-hole pair and absorbing the photon To minimize the probability that a photon will be absorbed before it has an opportunity to leave the LED, the depth of the p-doped region is left very thin Also, it is advantageous
Part II
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Figure 876 Light-emitting diode (LED)
to have most of the recombinations that emit photons occur as close to the surface of the diode as possible This is made possible by various doping schemes, but even so, of all of the carriers going through the diode, only a small fraction emit photons that are able to leave the semiconductor A simple LED drive circuit is shown in Figure 877 From the standpoint of circuit analysis, LED characteristics are very similar to those of the silicon diode, except that the offset voltage is usually quite a bit larger Typical values of V can be in the range of 12 to 2 volts, and operating currents can range from 20 mA to 100 mA Manufacturers usually specify an LED s characteristics by giving the rated operating-point current and voltage
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