vb.net barcode reader source code Analysis of Light-Emitting Diode in Software

Printer Quick Response Code in Software Analysis of Light-Emitting Diode

EXAMPLE 812 Analysis of Light-Emitting Diode
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For the circuit of Figure 877, determine: (1) the LED power consumption; (2) the resistance RS ; (3) the power required by the voltage source
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Solution
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Known Quantities: Diode operating point: VLED = 17 V; ILED = 40 mA; VS = 5 V Find: PLED ; RS ; PS Assumptions: Use the ideal diode model Analysis:
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1 The power consumption of the LED is determined directly from the speci cation of the operating point: PLED = VLED ILED = 68 mW 2 To determine the required value of RS to achieve the desired operating point, we apply KVL around the circuit of Figure 877: VS = ILED RS + VLED RS = VS VLED 5 17 = = 825 ILED 40 10 3
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Figure 877 LED drive circuit and i-v characteristic
8
Semiconductors and Diodes
3 To satisfy the power requirement of the circuit, the battery must be able to supply 40 mA to the diode Thus, PS = VS ILED = 200 mW
Comments: A more practical LED biasing circuit may be found in 9 (Example
97)
FOCUS ON MEASUREMENTS
Opto-Isolators
One of the common applications of photodiodes and LEDs is the opto-coupler, or opto-isolator This device, which is usually enclosed in a sealed package, uses the light-to-current and current-to-light conversion property of photodiodes and LEDs to provide signal connection between two circuits without any need for electrical connections Figure 878 depicts the circuit symbol for the opto-isolator
Input
Output
Figure 878 Opto-isolator
Because diodes are nonlinear devices, the opto-isolator is not used in transmitting analog signals: the signals would be distorted because of the nonlinear diode i-v characteristic However, opto-isolators nd a very important application when on-off signals need to be transmitted from high-power machinery to delicate computer control circuitry The optical interface ensures that potentially damaging large currents cannot reach delicate instrumentation and computer circuits
Check Your Understanding
811 Repeat the analysis of the diode clipper of Figure 858 for the branch containing
D2
812 For the one-sided diode clipper of Figure 859, nd the percentage of the source voltage that reaches the load if RL = 150 , rS = 50 , and rD = 5 Assume that the diode is conducting, and use the circuit model of Figure 863 813 How would the diode clipper output waveform change if we used the offset diode model instead of the piecewise linear model in the analysis [Hint: Compare Figures 826 and 838(a)]
CONCLUSION
Semiconductor materials have conductive properties that fall between those of conductors and insulators These properties make such materials useful in the
Part II
Electronics
construction of many electronic devices that exhibit nonlinear i-v characteristics Of these devices, the diode is one of the most commonly employed The semiconductor diode acts like a one-way current valve, permitting the ow of current only when biased in the forward direction Although the behavior of the diode is described by an exponential equation, it is possible to approximate the operation of the diode by means of simple circuit models The simplest model treats the diode as either a short circuit or an open circuit (the on-off, or ideal, model) The ideal model can be extended to include an offset voltage (usually 02 to 07 V), which represents the contact potential at the diode junction A slightly more realistic model, the piecewise linear diode model, accounts for the effects of the diode forward resistance With the aid of these circuit models it becomes possible to analyze diode circuits using the DC and AC circuit analysis techniques developed in earlier chapters One of the most important properties of the semiconductor diode is that of recti cation, which permits the conversion of AC voltages and currents to DC voltages and currents Diode recti ers can be of the half-wave type, or they can be full-wave Full-wave recti ers can be constructed in a conventional two-diode con guration, or in a bridge con guration Diode recti ers are an essential part of DC power supplies and are usually employed in conjunction with lter capacitors to obtain a relatively smooth DC voltage waveform In addition to recti cation and smoothing, it is also necessary to regulate the output of a DC power supply; Zener diodes accomplish this task by holding a constant voltage when reverse-biased above the Zener voltage In addition to power supply applications, diodes nd use in many signal-processing and signal-conditioning circuits Of these, the diode limiter, peak detector, and clamp have been explored in the chapter Further, since semiconductor material properties are also affected by light intensity, certain types of diodes, known as photodiodes, nd application as light detectors, solar cells, or light-emitting diodes
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