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Transistor Fundamentals
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Analyze simple large-signal BJT ampli ers Describe the basic operation of enhancement- and depletion-mode metal-oxide-semiconductor eld-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and of junction eld-effect transistors (JFETs) Interpret the universal curves for these devices and extract linear (small-signal) models for simple ampli ers from device curves and data sheets Identify the operating state of a eld-effect transistor from measured data and determine its operating point Analyze simple large-signal FET ampli ers
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TRANSISTORS AS AMPLIFIERS AND SWITCHES
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A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device that can perform two functions that are fundamental to the design of electronic circuits: ampli cation and switching Put simply, ampli cation consists of magnifying a signal by transferring energy to it from an external source; whereas a transistor switch is a device for controlling a relatively large current between or voltage across two terminals by means of a small control current or voltage applied at a third terminal In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the two major families of transistors: bipolar junction transistors, or BJTs; and eld-effect transistors, or FETs The operation of the transistor as a linear ampli er can be explained qualitatively by the sketch of Figure 91, in which the four possible modes of operation of a transistor are illustrated by means of circuit models employing controlled sources (you may wish to review the section on controlled sources in 2) In Figure 91, controlled voltage and current sources are shown to generate an output proportional to an input current or voltage; the proportionality constant, , is called the internal gain of the transistor As will be shown, the BJT acts essentially as a current-controlled device, while the FET behaves as a voltage-controlled device
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ro + iin ri i in ro vin _ (a) Current-controlled current source (b) Voltage-controlled voltage source ro + vin _ (c) Voltage-controlled current source (d) Current-controlled voltage source ri v in ro iin ri i in
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Figure 91 Controlled-source models of linear ampli er transistor operation
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Part II
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Transistors can also act in a nonlinear mode, as voltage- or current-controlled switches When a transistor operates as a switch, a small voltage or current is used to control the ow of current between two of the transistor terminals in an on-off fashion Figure 92 depicts the idealized operation of the transistor as a switch, suggesting that the switch is closed (on) whenever a control voltage or current is greater than zero and is open (off) otherwise It will later become apparent that the conditions for the switch to be on or off need not necessarily be those depicted in Figure 92 The operation of transistors as switches will be discussed in more detail in 10
iin 0
iin > 0
Current-controlled switch
+ vin _ ri vin 0
+ vin _ Voltage-controlled switch ri vin > 0
Figure 92 Models of ideal transistor switches
EXAMPLE 91 Model of Linear Ampli er
Problem
Determine the voltage gain of the ampli er circuit model shown in Figure 93
ro RS + B + vS vin E ri
in + v
vL
Solution
Known Quantities: Ampli er internal input and output resistances, ri and ro ; ampli er internal gain, ; source and load resistances, RS and RL
9 Find: AV =
Transistor Fundamentals
vL vS
Analysis: First determine the input voltage, vin , using the voltage divider rule:
vin =
ri vS ri + R S
Then, the output of the controlled voltage source is: ri vS vin = ri + R S and the output voltage can be found by the voltage divider rule: vL = ri RL vS ri + R S ro + R L
Finally, the ampli er voltage gain can be computed: AV = vL ri RL = vS ri + R S ro + R L
Comments: Note that the voltage gain computed above is always less than the transistor
internal voltage gain, One can easily show that if the conditions ri RS and ro RL hold, then the gain of the ampli er becomes approximately equal to the gain of the transistor One can therefore conclude that the actual gain of an ampli er always depends on the relative values of source and input resistance, and of output and load resistance
Check Your Understanding
91 Repeat the analysis of Example 91 for the current-controlled voltage source model of Figure 91(d) What is the ampli er voltage gain Under what conditions would the gain A be equal to /RS 92 Repeat the analysis of Example 91 for the current-controlled current source model of Figure 91(a) What is the ampli er voltage gain 93 Repeat the analysis of Example 91 for the voltage-controlled current source model of Figure 91(c) What is the ampli er voltage gain
THE BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT)
The pn junction studied in 8 forms the basis of a large number of semiconductor devices The semiconductor diode, a two-terminal device, is the most direct application of the pn junction In this section, we introduce the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) As we did in analyzing the diode, we will introduce the physics of transistor devices as intuitively as possible, resorting to an analysis of their i -v characteristics to discover important properties and applications A BJT is formed by joining three sections of semiconductor material, each with a different doping concentration The three sections can be either a thin n region sandwiched between p + and p layers, or a p region between n and n+ layers, where the superscript plus indicates more heavily doped material The resulting BJTs are called pnp and npn transistors, respectively; we shall discuss
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