vb.net barcode reader source code Resistor value = (b1 b2) 10 b3; b4 = % tolerance in actual value in Software

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Resistor value = (b1 b2) 10 b3; b4 = % tolerance in actual value
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Figure 222 Resistor color code
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In Table 21, the leftmost column represents the complete color code; columns to the right of it only show the third color, since this is the only one that changes For example, a 10- resistor has the code brown-black-black, while a 100- resistor has brown-black-brown In addition to the resistance in ohms, the maximum allowable power dissipation (or power rating) is typically speci ed for commercial resistors Exceeding this power rating leads to overheating and can cause the resistor to literally burn
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up For a resistor R, the power dissipated can be expressed, with Ohm s Law substituted into equation 210, by P = V I = I 2R = V2 R (218)
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That is, the power dissipated by a resistor is proportional to the square of the current owing through it, as well as the square of the voltage across it The following example illustrates how one can make use of the power rating to determine whether a given resistor will be suitable for a certain application
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EXAMPLE 26 Using Resistor Power Ratings
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Determine the minimum resistor size that can be connected to a given battery without exceeding the resistor s 1 -watt power rating 4
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Solution
Known Quantities: Resistor power rating = 025 W
Battery voltages: 15 and 3 V
Find: The smallest size 1 -watt resistor that can be connected to each battery 4 Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Figure 223, Figure 224
+ 15 V
15 V
+ 15 V + 15 V
Figure 223 Figure 224
Analysis: We rst need to obtain an expression for resistor power dissipation as a function of its resistance We know that P = V I and that V = I R Thus, the power dissipated by any resistor is:
PR = V I = V
V2 R
Since the maximum allowable power dissipation is 025 W, we can write V 2 /R 025, or R V 2 /025 Thus, for a 15-volt battery, the minimum size resistor will be R = 152 /025 = 9 For a 3-volt battery the minimum size resistor will be R = 32 /025 = 36
2
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
Comments: Sizing resistors on the basis of power rating is very important in practice
Note how the minimum resistor size quadrupled as we doubled the voltage across it This is because power increases as the square of the voltage Remember that exceeding power ratings will inevitably lead to resistor failure!
FOCUS ON MEASUREMENTS
Resistive Throttle Position Sensor
Problem:
The aim of this example is to determine the calibration of an automotive resistive throttle position sensor, shown in Figure 225(a) Figure 225(b) and (c) depict the geometry of the throttle plate and the equivalent circuit of the throttle sensor The throttle plate in a typical throttle body has a range of rotation of just under 90 , ranging from closed throttle to wide-open throttle
Figure 225 (a) A throttle position sensor Photo courtesy of CTS Corporation
Solution: Known Quantities Functional speci cations of throttle position sensor Find Calibration of sensor in volts per degree of throttle plate opening
Part I
Circuits
Wide-open throttle angle 0 Closed-throttle 0 angle VB R0
Rsensor + R V sensor
Figure 225 (b) Throttle blade geometry (c) Throttle position sensor equivalent circuit
Throttle position sensor calibration curve 11 10 9 Sensor voltage, V 8 7 6 5 4 3
Throttle position, degrees
Figure 225 (d) Calibration curve for throttle position sensor
Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data
Functional speci cations of throttle position sensor
Overall Resistance, Ro + Input, VB Output, Vsensor Current draw, Is Recommended load, RL Electrical Travel, Max
3 to 12 k 5V 4% regulated 5% to 95% Vs 20 mA 220 k 110 degrees
The nominal supply voltage is 12 V and total throttle plate travel is 88 , with a closed-throttle angle of 2 and a wide-open throttle angle of 90
2
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
Analysis The equivalent circuit describing the variable resistor that makes
up the sensor is shown in Figure 225(c) The wiper arm, that is, the moving part of the variable resistor, or potentiometer, de nes a voltage proportional to position The actual construction of the potentiometer is in the shape of a circle the gure depicts the potentiometer resistor as a straight line for simplicity The range of the potentiometer (see speci cations above) is 0 to 112 for a resistance of 3 to 12 k ; thus, the calibration constant of the potentiometer is: degrees 112 0 degrees = 1244 12 3 k k The calibration of the throttle position sensor is: kpot = Vsensor = VB = VB R0 + R = VB Rsensor R0 R + Rsensor Rsensor ( in degrees)
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