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Source + + + + + + + + + + + + Drain n n+ n+ Pinched-off p channel Bulk (substrate)
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If the drain-source voltage is kept fixed and the gate supply voltage is varied, the MOSFET will behave as a voltage-controlled resistor until the pinch-off condition is reached (see Figure 931(a))
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Figure 930 Operation of n-channel enchancement MOSFET
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If the drain and gate supply voltages are both varied, a family of curves (shown in Figure 931(b)) can be generated, illustrating the MOSFET cutoff, ohmic, saturation, and breakdown regions
clear why these devices are called eld-effect, since it is an external electric eld that determines the conduction properties of the transistor It is also possible to create depletion-mode devices in which an externally applied eld depletes the channel of charge carriers by reducing the effective channel width (see Section 96) Depletion-mode MOSFETs are normally on, and can be turned off by application of an external electric eld We shall discuss depletion-mode devices in the next section To complete this brief summary of the operation of MOS transistors we note that, in analogy with pnp bipolar transistors, it is also possible to construct pchannel MOSFETS In these transistors, conduction occurs in a channel formed in n-type bulk material via positive charge carriers Operation of the n-Channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET To explain the operation of this family of transistors, we will mimic a laboratory experiment designed to generate the characteristic curves of the transistor, much as was done for the bipolar transistor The experiment is depicted in Figure 930(a) to (d), where each pair of gures depicts the test circuit and a corresponding
Part II
Electronics
qualitative sketch of the electric eld and channel for a particular set of voltages In the test circuit, we have gate and drain supply voltages and the source is connected to ground We have already seen that when no gate voltage is applied, both pn junctions are reverse-biased and the transistor cannot conduct current (Figure 930(a)) This is the cutoff region of the n-channel enhancement MOSFET When a gate voltage is applied, an electric eld is generated and a channel is formed when the gate-source voltage, vGS , exceeds a threshold voltage, VT (Figure 930(b)) The threshold voltage is a physical characteristic of a given transistor, and can be treated as a parameter (eg, like the junction voltage in a diode or BJT) Note that the channel is narrower near the drain and wider near the source This is because the electric eld is spatially distributed, and is stronger near the source (which is at zero volts) than near the drain (which is at VDD volts) When the channel has formed, conduction can take place between drain and source Note that, as a result of the nature of the n-type channel, charge carriers are exclusively of the negative type; thus MOSFETs are unipolar devices (as opposed to bipolar transistors) Conduction occurs through electrons injected from the n+ source region into the channel (thus the terminology source, analogous to the emitter in a BJT) These electrons are then swept into the n+ drain (analogous to the collector in a BJT) Thus, the direction of current ow is from drain to source, and we shall refer to this current as the drain current, iD Suppose now that the drain-source voltage is xed at some value (Figure 930(c)) Then, as the gate-source voltage is raised above the threshold voltage (so that a channel is formed), the width of the conduction channel increases because of the increasing strength of the electric eld In this mode of operation, the MOSFET acts as a voltage controlled resistor: as the gate voltage is further increased, the resistance of the channel decreases because the channel width increases This phenomenon, however, can take place only up to a certain gate-source voltage: when the difference between gate-source voltage and threshold voltage, vGS VT , equals the ( xed for the moment) drain-source voltage, vDS , the width of the channel reaches a minimum in the vicinity of the drain The channel width is thus reduced near the drain, because the eld strength is near zero at the drain end of the channel (recall that the eld strength is always at a minimum near the drain) This condition is called pinch-off, and the channel is said to be pinched off Once pinch-off occurs, increasing the gate-source voltage will not cause an appreciable increase in drain current since the channel width is xed at the drain, and the MOSFET behaves much like a constant-current source, with the drain current limited to a saturation value by the pinched-off channel width Figure 931(a) depicts the relationship between drain current and gate-source voltage for xed drain-source voltage of an n-channel enhancement MOSFET The pinch-off condition allows us to divide the operation of the n-channel enhancement MOSFET into two major operating regions: the ohmic or triode region (before pinch-off occurs), and the saturation region (after pinch-off has occurred) In the ohmic region, the MOSFET acts as a voltage-controlled resistor; in the saturation region it acts as a current source If we nally allow both the drain and the gate supply to be varied (Figure 930(d)), we can generate a family of curves These curves, depicted in Figure 931(b), are called the drain characteristic curves They represent the behavior of the MOSFET in terms of drain current versus drain-source voltage curves; each curve in the drain characteristic corresponds to a different value of gate-source
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