vb.net barcode reader source code Compensating for Variation in in a Common-Emitter Ampli er in Software

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EXAMPLE 104 Compensating for Variation in in a Common-Emitter Ampli er
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Current gain variability from transistor to transistor is a practical problem that complicates ampli er design In particular, it is desirable to obtain a stable operating point, relatively independent of variation in (which can be as much as 50 percent) A common rule of thumb to reduce operating point variability is to require that min RE 10 1 Find the operating point of the design B ampli er of Example 103 if 75 150 RB = 2 Using the above design rule, design a new ampli er (call it design C) with the same quiescent collector current as design B 3 Demonstrate that the operating point of design C is more stable than that of design B
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Known Quantities: Ampli er supply voltages; base, collector, and emitter resistances; transistor parameters Find:
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1 Quiescent values of IB , IC , and VCE for design B ampli er for extreme values of 2 Quiescent values of IB , IC , and VCE for design C ampli er 3 Variation in Q point of design C versus design B
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Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: V = 07 V; min = 75; max = 150;
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VCC = 15 V Design B (Figure 1017): R1 = 237 k ; R2 = 173 k ; RC = 200
Analysis:
; RE = 200
200
1 Design B We compute the Q point for design B for each of the extreme values of The calculations are identical to those already carried out in Example 103 For = min = 75: IB = VBB V 633 07 = 233 A = RB + ( min + 1)RE 10,000 + 76 200 min + 1 RE min 76 200 = 83 V 75
200
IC = min IB = 167 mA VCE = VCC IC RC +
Figure 1017 DC circuit for Example 104
= 15 167 10 3 200 + Thus, the Q point for = min = 75 is:
IBO = 233 A
ICO = 167 mA
VCEO = 83 V
For = max = 150: IB = VBB V 633 07 = = 140 A RB + ( max + 1)RE 10,000 + 151 200 max + 1 RE max 151 200 = 657 V 150
IC = max IB = 21 mA VCE = VCC IC RC +
= 15 21 10 3 200 +
Thus, the Q point for = max = 150 is:
IBO = 140 A
ICO = 21 mA
VCEO = 657 V
The change in quiescent base current, relative to the nominal value of design B (for = 100) is 50 percent; the changes in quiescent collector current and collector-emitter voltage (relative to the same quantities for the = 100 design) are around 23 percent Figure 1018 depicts the location of the two extreme Q points 2 Design C Using the design rule stated in the problem statement we compute: 75 200 min RE = = 15 k 10 10 RB = R1 ||R2 is an equivalent resistance; further, the value of VBB depends on R1 and R2 Thus, we need to select these components in such a way as to satisfy the requirement that IC = 186 mA We write the base circuit equation in terms of the RB =
Part II
Electronics
IC (mA) 40 30 21 mA 167 mA 10 0 20 Q point for min Q point for max
5 657 V
10 83 V
VCE (V)
Figure 1018 Variability in Q point due to change in
collector current and compute the desired equivalent base supply voltage Note that in the calculation below we have used the nominal design value of = 100 VBB = IB RB + V + IE RE = IC ( + 1) RB + V + IC RE = 474 V
Using the following relationships, we can calculate the values of the two resistors R1 and R2 : VBB = R1 VCC R1 + R 2
474 (R1 + R2 ) = 15R1 474R2 = 1026R1 R2 = 216R1 and RB = R1 R 2 = 1,500 R1 + R 2
2 216R1 = 068R1 316R1
1,500 =
R1 = 2,194 R2 = 4,740
22 k 47 k
47 k
15 V
Note that we have selected the closest 5 percent tolerance resistor standard values (see Table 21); resistor tolerance is another source of variability in transistor ampli er design With the stated value we can now proceed to complete the Q point determination for the nominal design C The DC bias circuit is shown in Figure 1019 IB = VBB V 474 07 = 186 A = RB + ( + 1)RE 1,500 + 101 200 ( + 1) RE 101 200 = 75 V 200 + 100
200
22 k
200
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