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Figure P1049
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1050 For the inverter of Figure P1050, RB = 5 k
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and RC1 = RC2 = 2 k Find the minimum values of 1 and 2 to ensure that Q1 and Q2 saturate when vin is high
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Figure P1053
1054 Show that when two or more emitter-follower
Figure P1050
outputs are connected to a common load, as shown in the circuit of Figure P1054, the OR operation results; that is, vo = v1 OR v2
Part II
Electronics
v2 Q3 vo vout
Figure P1054
1055 For the CMOS NAND gate of Check Your
Understanding Exercise 1014 identify the state of each transistor for v1 = v2 = 5 V
1056 Repeat Problem 1055 for v1 = 5 V and v2 = 0 V 1057 Draw the schematic diagram of a two-input
CMOS OR gate
1058 Draw the schematic diagram of a two-input
CMOS AND gate
Figure P1062
1059 Draw the schematic diagram of a two-input TTL
OR gate
1063 Show that the circuit of Figure P1063 functions
as a NAND gate
1060 Draw the schematic diagram of a two-input TTL
AND gate
1061 Show that the circuit of Figure P1061 functions
as a logic inverter
Q3 Q1 vout vout v1 Q2 Q1
Figure P1061
1062 Show that the circuit of Figure P1062 functions
as a NOR gate
Figure P1063
Power Electronics
he objective of this chapter is to present a survey of power electronic devices and systems Power electronic devices form the muscle of many electromechanical systems For example, one nds such devices in many appliances, in industrial machinery, and virtually wherever an electric motor is found, since one of the foremost applications of power electronic devices is to supply and control the currents and voltages required to power electric machines, such as those introduced in Part III of this book Power electronic devices are specially designed diodes and transistors that have the ability to carry large currents and sustain large voltages; thus, the basis for this chapter is the material on diodes and transistors introduced in s 8 through 10 A detailed understanding of diode and transistor small-signal models is not necessary for acquiring an essential knowledge of power semiconductor devices This chapter will describe the basic properties of each type of power electronic device, and it will illustrate the application of a selected few, especially in electric motor power supplies After completing the chapter, you should be able to recognize the symbols for the major power semiconductor devices and understand their principles of operation You should also understand the operation of the principal electronic power supplies for DC and AC motors
11
Power Electronics
Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to:
Provide a classi cation of power electronic devices and circuits Understand the operation of voltage regulators, transistor power ampli ers, and power switches Analyze recti er and controlled recti er circuits Understand the basic principles behind DC and AC electric motor drives
CLASSIFICATION OF POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES
Device Diode
Device symbol iD A + vAK G K iA A G iA A K C G K K
Thyristor A Gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) Triac
npn BJT B
E IGBT G C
E n-channel MOSFET G S D
Figure 111 Classi cation of power electronic devices
Power semiconductors can be broadly subdivided into ve groups: (1) power diodes, (2) thyristors, (3) power bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), (4) insulatedgate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), and (5) static induction transistors (SITs) Figure 111 depicts the symbols for the most common power electronic devices Power diodes are functionally identical to the diodes introduced in 8, except for their ability to carry much larger currents You will recall that a diode conducts in the forward-biased mode when the anode voltage (VA ) is higher than the cathode voltage (VK ) Three types of power diodes exist: general-purpose, high-speed (fast-recovery), and Schottky Typical ranges of voltage and current are 3,000 V and 3,500 A for general-purpose diodes and 3,000 V and 1,000 A for high-speed devices The latter have switching times as low as a fraction of a microsecond Schottky diodes can switch much faster (in the nanosecond range) but are limited to around 100 V and 300 A The forward voltage drop of power diodes is not much higher than that of low-power diodes, being between 05 and 12 V Since power diodes are used with rather large voltages, the forward bias voltage is usually considered negligible relative to other voltages in the circuit, and the switching characteristics of power diodes may be considered near ideal The principal consideration in choosing power diodes is their power rating Thyristors function like power diodes with an additional gate terminal that controls the time when the device begins conducting; a thyristor starts to conduct when a small gate current is injected into the gate terminal, provided that the anode voltage is greater than the cathode voltage (or VAK > 0 V) The forward voltage drop of a thyristor is of the order of 05 to 2 V Once conduction is initiated, the gate current has no further control To stop conduction, the device must be reverse-biased; that is, one must ensure that VAK 0 V Thyristors can be rated at up to 6,000 V and 3,500 A The turn-off time is an important characteristic of thyristors; it represents the time required for the device current to return to zero after external switching of VAK The fastest turn-off times available are in the range of 10 s; however, such turn-off times are achieved only in devices with slightly lower power ratings (1,200 V, 1,000 A) Thyristors can be subclassi ed into the following groups: force-commutated and line-commutated thyristors, gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs), reverse-conducting thyristors (RCTs), static induction thyristors (SITs), gate-assisted turn-off thyristors (GATTs), light-activated silicon controlled recti ers (LASCRs), and MOS controlled thyristors (MCTs) It is beyond the scope of this chapter to go into a detailed description of each of these types of devices; their operation is typically a slight modi cation of the basic operation of the thyristor The reader who wishes to gain greater insight into this topic may refer to one of a number of excellent books speci cally devoted to the subject of power electronics
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