barcode reader vb.net codeproject Fundamentals of Electric Circuits in Software

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Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
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Practical voltmeter
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A series circuit
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Ideal voltmeter
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Circuit for the measurement of the voltage v2
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Figure 242 Measurement of voltage
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Practical ammeter
Figure 243 Models for practical ammeter and voltmeter
All of the considerations that pertain to practical ammeters and voltmeters can be applied to the operation of a wattmeter, a measuring instrument that provides a measurement of the power dissipated by a circuit element, since the wattmeter is in effect made up of a combination of a voltmeter and an ammeter Figure 244 depicts the typical connection of a wattmeter in the same series circuit used in the preceding paragraphs In effect, the wattmeter measures the current owing through the load and, simultaneously, the voltage across it and multiplies the two to provide a reading of the power dissipated by the load The internal power consumption of a practical wattmeter is explored in the homework problems
i R1 i W + vS + _ v2 R2 vS + _ V R1 A + v2 R2
Measurement of the power dissipated in the resistor R2: P2 = v2 i
Internal wattmeter connections
Figure 244 Measurement of power
ELECTRICAL NETWORKS
In the previous sections we have outlined models for the basic circuit elements: sources, resistors, and measuring instruments We have assembled all the tools and parts we need in order to de ne an electrical network It is appropriate at this stage to formally de ne the elements of the electrical circuit; the de nitions that follow are part of standard electrical engineering terminology Branch A branch is any portion of a circuit with two terminals connected to it A branch may consist of one or more circuit elements (Figure 245) In practice, any circuit element with two terminals connected to it is a branch
Part I
Circuits
a + Branch voltage v b i A Branch current A branch Ideal resistor A battery Examples of circuit branches Practical ammeter R rm
Figure 245 De nition of a branch
DC Measurements with the Digital MultiMeter (Courtesy: Hewlett-Packard)
Digital multimeters (DMMs) are the workhorse of all measurement laboratories Figure 246 depicts the front panel of a typical benchtop DMM Tables 23 and 24 list the features and speci cations of the multimeter
FOCUS ON MEASUREMENTS
Figure 246 Hewlett-Packard 34401A 65-digit multimeter Table 23 Features of the 34401A multimeter 65 digit resolution uncovers the details that hide from other DMMs Accuracy you can count on: 00015% for dc, 006% for ac Perfect for your bench - more than a dozen functions one or two key presses away True RMS AC volts and current Perfect for your system - 1000 rdgs/sec in ASCII format across the HP-IB bus RS-232 and HP-IB Standard
The Measurements section in the accompanying CD-ROM contains interactive programs that illustrate the use of the DMM and of other common measuring instruments
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Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
Table 24 Speci cations for the 34401A multimeter DC Voltage Accuracy specs Range dc voltage 100mV 1V 10V 100V 1000V 65 Digits Resolution 100nV 1 V 10 V 100 V 1mV Accuracy: 1 year (%reading + %range) 00050 + 00035 00040 + 00007 00035 + 00005 00045 + 00006 00045 + 00010
Input resistance 10 M 10 M 10 M 10 M 10 M or >10 G or >10 G or >10 G
True RMS AC Voltage Accuracy specs Accuracy: 1 year (%reading + %range) 100 + 004 035 + 004 006 + 004 012 + 004 060 + 008 400 + 050 100 + 003 035 + 003 006 + 003 012 + 005 060 + 008 400 + 050
Frequency 100 mV range 3 Hz 5 Hz 5 Hz 10 Hz 10 Hz 20 kHz 20 kHz 50 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 100 kHz 300 kHz 3 Hz 5 Hz 5 Hz 10 Hz 10 Hz 20 kHz 20 kHz 50 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 100 kHz 300 kHz
1 V 750 V ranges
Resistance Accuracy specs Accuracy: 1 year (%reading + %range) 0010 + 0004 0010 + 0001 0010 + 0001 0010 + 0001 0010 + 0001 0040 + 0001 0800 + 0010
Range 100 ohm 1k 10 k 100 kohm 1M 10 M 100 Mohm
Resolution 100 1m 10 m 100 m 1 10 100
Current Source 1 mA 1 mA 100 A 10 A 5 A 500 nA 500 nA
Other Accuracy specs (basic 1 year accuracy) dc current accuracy: (10 mA to 3 A ranges) ac current accuracy: (1 A to 3 A ranges) Frequency (and Period): (3 Hz to 300 kHz, 0333 sec to 333 sec) Continuity: (1000 range, 1 mA test current) Diode test: 1 V range, 1 mA test current 005% of reading + 0005% of range 01% of reading + 004% of range 001% of reading
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