barcode reader code in asp.net c# Figure 1253 The maximum slope of a sinusoidal signal varies with the signal frequency in Software

Maker QR-Code in Software Figure 1253 The maximum slope of a sinusoidal signal varies with the signal frequency

Figure 1253 The maximum slope of a sinusoidal signal varies with the signal frequency
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Operational Ampli ers
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EXAMPLE 1215 Effect of Slew Rate Limit on an Ampli er
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Problem
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Determine the effect of the slew rate limit, S0 , on the output of an inverting ampli er for a sinusoidal input voltage of known amplitude and frequency
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Solution
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Known Quantities: Slew rate limit, S0 ; amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal input voltage; ampli er closed-loop gain Find: Sketch the theoretically correct output and the actual output of the ampli er in the
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same graph vS (t) = sin(2 105 t); AV = 10
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Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: S0 = 1 V/ S; Assumptions: Assume slew-rate-limited (otherwise ideal) op-amp Analysis: Given the closed-loop voltage gain of 10, we compute the theoretical output
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voltage to be: vout (t) = 10 sin(2 105 t) The maximum slope of the output voltage is then computed as follows: dvout (t) dt = A = 10 2 105 = 628
V s
Clearly, the value calculated above far exceeds the slew rate limit Figure 1254 depicts the approximate appearance of the waveforms that one would measure in an experiment
Comments: Note that in this example the slew rate limit has been exceeded severely, and
the output waveform is visibly distorted, to the point that it has effectively become a triangular wave The effect of the slew rate limit is not always necessarily so dramatic and visible; thus one needs to pay attention to the speci cations of a given op-amp The slew rate limit is listed in the device data sheets (see the data sheets in the accompanying CDROM, or in the device templates in the Electronics WorkbenchTM libraries, for examples) Typical values can range from 13 V/ s, for the TLO81, to around 05 V/ s for a low-cost general-purpose ampli er (eg, A 741c)
vout(t) Smax = 628 V s
Desired response Actual response
25 S0 = 1 V s
t (ms)
Figure 1254 Distortion introduced by slew rate limit
Part II
Electronics
Short-Circuit Output Current Recall the model for the op-amp introduced in Section 122, which represented the internal circuits of the op-amp in terms of an equivalent input resistance, Rin , and a controlled voltage source, AV vin In practice, the internal source is not ideal, because it cannot provide an in nite amount of current (either to the load, or to the feedback connection, or both) The immediate consequence of this nonideal op-amp characteristic is that the maximum output current of the ampli er is limited by the so-called short-circuit output current, ISC : |Iout | < ISC (1289)
RF RS iS vS iF _ + + vout _ iL RL
To further explain this point, consider that the op-amp needs to provide current to the feedback path (in order to zero the voltage differential at the input) and to whatever load resistance, RL , may be connected to the output Figure 1255 illustrates this idea for the case of an inverting ampli er, where ISC is the load current that would be provided to a short-circuit load (RL = 0)
EXAMPLE 1216 Effect of Short-Circuit Current Limit on an Ampli er
Problem
Determine the effect of the short-circuit limit, ISC , on the output of an inverting ampli er for a sinusoidal input voltage of known amplitude
Solution
Known Quantities: Short-circuit current limit, ISC ; amplitude of sinusoidal input voltage; ampli er closed-loop gain Find: Compute the maximum allowable load resistance value, RL min , and sketch the theoretical and actual output voltage waveforms for resistances smaller than RL min
= 005 sin( t); AV = 100
Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: ISC = 50 mA; vS (t) Assumptions: Assume short-circuit-current-limited (otherwise ideal) op-amp Analysis: Given the closed-loop voltage gain of 100, we compute the theoretical output
voltage to be: vout (t) = AV vS (t) = 5 sin( t) To assess the effect of the short-circuit current limit, we calculate the peak value of the output voltage, since this is the condition that will require the maximum output current from the op-amp: vout peak = 5 V ISC = 50 mA RL
vout peak 5V = = 100 ISC 50 mA , the required load current will be greater than ISC
For any load resistance less than 100
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Operational Ampli ers
vout (t) 5 375
vout for RL 100
For example, if we chose a 75-
load resistor, we would nd that
vout peak = ISC RL = 375 V That is, the output voltage cannot reach the theoretically correct 5-V peak, and would be compressed to reach a peak voltage of only 375 V This effect is depicted in Figure 1256
Comments: The short-circuit current limit is listed in the device data sheets (see the data sheets in the accompanying CD-ROM, or in the device templates in the Electronics WorkbenchTM libraries, for examples) Typical values for a low-cost general-purpose ampli er (eg, 741c) are in the tens of milliamperes
375 5
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