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Encoding QR-Code in Software Part II

Part II
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Electronics
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cylinder, an EPROM address is speci ed and the corresponding content is read The content at the speci c address is the mass of fuel required by that particular cylinder In practice, the fuel mass needs to be converted into a time interval corresponding to the duration of time during which the fuel injector is open This nal conversion factor can also be accounted for in the table Suppose, for example, that the fuel injector is capable of injecting KF g of fuel per second; then the time duration, TF , during which the injector should be open in order to inject MF g of fuel into the cylinder is given by: TF = MF s KF
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Therefore, the complete expression to be precomputed and stored in the EPROM is: TF = MA s 147 KF
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Figure 1359 illustrates this process graphically
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Digital value of MA (EPROM address) Analog-to-digital converter MA
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Digital value of TF (EPROM content) Fuel injection system TF
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Fuel injector pulse width
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Fuel injector
Figure 1359 Use of EPROM lookup table in automotive fuel injection system
To provide a numerical illustration, consider a hypothetical engine capable of aspirating air in the range 0 < MA < 051 g and equipped with fuel injectors capable of injecting at the rate of 136 g/s Thus, the relationship between TF and MA is: TF = 50 MA ms = 005MA s If the digital value of MA is expressed in dg (decigrams, or tenths of g), the lookup table of Figure 1360 can be implemented, illustrating the conversion capabilities provided by the EPROM Note that in order to represent the quantities of interest in an appropriate binary format compatible with the 8-bit EPROM, the units of air mass and of time have been scaled
13
Digital Logic Circuits
MA (g) 10 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 51
Address (digital value of MA ) 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 00000101 00110011
Content (digital value of TF) 00000000 00000101 00001010 00001111 00010100 00011001 11111111
TF (ms) 10 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 255
Figure 1360 Lookup table for automotive fuel injection application
Decoders and Read and Write Memory Decoders, which are commonly used for applications such as address decoding or memory expansion, are combinational logic circuits as well Our reason for introducing decoders is to show some of the internal organization of semiconductor memory devices An important application of decoders in the organization of a memory system is discussed in 14 Figure 1361 shows the truth table for a 2-to-4 decoder The decoder has an enable input, G, and select inputs, B and A It also has four outputs, Y0 through Y3 When the enable input is logic 1, all decoder outputs are forced to logic 1 regardless of the select inputs This simple description of decoders permits a brief discussion of the internal organization of an SRAM (static random-access or read and write memory) SRAM is internally organized to provide memory with high speed (ie, short access time), a large bit capacity, and low cost The memory array in this memory device has a column length equal to the number of words, W , and a row length equal to the number of bits per word, N To select a word, an n-to-W decoder is needed Since the address inputs to the decoder select only one of the decoder s outputs, the decoder selects one word in the memory array Figure 1362 shows the internal organization of a typical SRAM
A B G 2-to-4 decoder
Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3
Inputs Enable Select G 1 0 0 0 0 A x 0 0 1 1 B x 0 1 0 1
Outputs
Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
Figure 1361 2-to-4 decoder
n-to-W n address decoder W = 2n inputs Memory array W
Figure 1362 Internal organization of SRAM
Part II
Electronics
Thus, to choose the desired word from the memory array, the proper address inputs are required As an example, if the number of words in the memory array is 8, a 3-to-8 decoder is needed Data sheets for 2-to-4 and 3-to-8 decoders from a CMOS family data book are provided in the accompanying CD-ROM
Check Your Understanding
1327 Which combination of the control lines will select the data line D3 for a 4-to-1
MUX
1328 Show that an 8-to-1 MUX with eight data inputs (D0 through D7 ) and three control lines (I0 through I2 ) can be used as a data selector Which combination of the control lines will select the data line D5 1329 Which combination of the control lines will select the data line D4 for an 8-to-1
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