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Figure 1432 Microcomputer architecture
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into RAM very rapidly RAM is therefore used primarily during the execution of programs to store partial or permanent results, as well as to store all of the software currently in use by the computer The main difference between RAM and mass storage memory, such as a hard drive or a tape drive, is therefore in the speed of access: RAM can be accessed in tens of nanoseconds, whereas a hard drive requires access time on the order of microseconds, and tape drive, on the order of seconds Another important distinction between RAM and mass memory is that the latter is far less expensive for an equivalent storage capability, the price typically being lower for longer access time A video terminal enables the user to enter programs and to display the data acquired by the microcomputer The video terminal is one of many peripherals that enable the computer to communicate information to the outside world Among these peripherals are printers, and devices that enable communication between computers, such as modems (a modem enables the computer to send and receive data over a telephone line) Finally, Figure 1433 depicts real-time input/output (I/O) devices, such as analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters and digital I/O devices These are the devices that allow the microcomputer to read signals from external sensors, to output signals to actuators, and to exchange data with other computers
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MICROCONTROLLERS
A microcontroller is a special-purpose microcomputer system, designed to perform the functions illustrated in Figure 1428 Microcontrollers have become an essential part of many engineering products, processes and systems, and are often deeply embedded in the inner workings of many products and systems we use daily (for example, in automobile control systems, and in many consumer products and appliances, such as autofocus cameras and washing machines) This section introduces the operation of a general-purpose microcontroller using as an example the architecture of the Motorola 68HC05 Although much more powerful microcontrollers are available, the 8-bit, 2-MHz, HCMOS-technology (where H stands for high speed ) MC68HC05 contains all of the essential elements that make
14
Digital Systems
microcontrollers so useful The material presented in this and the next sections is intended to serve as an overview Supplemental material, including the details of the instruction set for the MC68HC05 and illustrative examples, may be found in the accompanying CD-ROM Computer Architecture Computer systems come in many different sizes, from the large mainframe computers that run entire companies and hospitals, to the powerful networked workstations that are the workhorse of computer-aided engineering design, to the ubiquitous personal computers, whether in desktop or laptop form, to the microcontrollers that are the subject of the remainder of this chapter All computer systems are characterized by the same basic elements, although the details may differ signi cantly Figure 1432 depicts the overall structure of a computer system A central processor unit (CPU) is timed by a clock to execute instructions contained in memory at a certain rate, determined by the frequency of the clock The instructions contained in memory originate from computer programs, which are loaded into memory as needed The ow of instruction execution is controlled by various external inputs and outputs Inputs could consist of keyboard commands (as is often the case in personal computers), or of information provided by sensors, or of the position of switches (the last two inputs are very typical of microcontrollers) Typical outputs could be to a video display, a magnetic or optical storage device, a printer, or a plotter (all common with desktop PCs); microcontroller outputs are more likely to activate LED displays, relays, and actuators such as motors or valves We discuss the details of some typical microcontroller inputs and outputs later in this section and in the next section, where an application example is presented Inputs and outputs can be either analog (that is, representing continuous values) or digital (representing discrete values) Digital inputs can be directly accepted by a CPU, while analog inputs require the use of an analog-to-digital converter (or ADC) ADCs are described in detail in the next chapter Similarly, the CPU can directly generate digital outputs, while a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, also introduced in 15) is required to generate an analog output Next, we outline the important properties of each of the elements of the block diagram of Figure 1433
The Central Processor Unit (CPU)
The function of the CPU is to execute the program of instruction contained in memory The CPU will therefore be required to read information from inputs and to write information to outputs To accomplish these tasks, the CPU reads from and writes to memory Microcontroller programs are usually much simpler than those that operate, say, in a desktop computer This is because microcontrollers are usually dedicated to a few speci c tasks The instruction set of the M68HC05, which is the native programming language of this processor, is based on approximately 60 different instructions We shall see in a later subsection [ Operation of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) ] how these instructions are used to execute desired functions
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