barcode reader code in asp.net c# The Clock in Software

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The clock represents the heartbeat of the microcontroller The clock function is typically implemented by a crystal oscillator that determines the basic clock cycle
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Inputs Memory Switch Central processor unit (CPU)
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Clock
Relay
Crystal (a) Power Address Bus Data bus Vdd Vss Ground Program memory Data memory
Digital inputs
I/O and peripherals
Digital outputs
Reset
Central processing unit CPU
Crystal
Oscillator and clocks (b)
Figure 1433 (a) High-level block diagram of microcontroller; (b) Internal organization of microcontroller
for the execution of each instruction step Each step takes one clock cycle to complete We are all familiar with the rating of processor speeds in megahertz Typical microcontrollers are capable of speeds in the megahertz to tens of megahertz range
Memory
The CPU needs to have access to different kinds of memory to execute programs Read-only memory (ROM) is used for permanent programs and data that are necessary, for example, to boot and initialize the system Information stored in ROM remains unchanged even when power to the computer is turned off Random
14
Digital Systems
access read/write memory (RAM) is used to temporarily store data and instructions For example, the program that is executed by the CPU and the intermediate results of the calculations are stored in RAM Many microcontrollers also employ erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) or electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM); these types of memory are used like ROM, but can be reprogrammed relatively easily using special EPROM burners EPROM and EEPROM can be very useful if one wishes to make small but important changes to the functions executed by the microcontroller For example, the microcontrollers used in automotive applications are usually the same from one model year to the next and across various vehicle platforms, but differences in control strategies and calibration data among vehicles, and changes and xes required from one model year to the next are usually accommodated by means of EPROMs Section 145 describes an automotive application Computer memory is arranged on the basis of bits, that is, a single digital variable with value of 0 or 1 Bits are grouped in bytes, consisting of 8 bits, and in words, consisting of 16 or 32 bits While the size of a word can vary, a byte always consists of 8 bits Small microcontrollers such as the 6805 have access to a relatively limited amount of memory (eg, 64 Kbytes); more powerful microcontrollers may access as much as 1 Mbyte Note that the memory capacity of a microcontroller is signi cantly smaller than that of the personal computers you are likely to use in your work Mass storage devices (magnetic and optical storage devices, such as hard drives and CD-ROMs) can also be used to increase a computer s access to data and information Access to such external devices is much slower than access to ROM and RAM, and is therefore usually not practical in embedded microcontrollers
Computer Programs
A computer program is a listing of instructions to be executed by the CPU The instructions are coded in a special machine language that consists of combinations of bytes To assist the programmer, each CPU instruction is associated to a mnemonic instruction code, which associated a short word or abbreviated code to each instruction (for example, the instruction ASL in the M68HC05 stands for arithmetic shift left) More sophisticated software development systems allow the instructor to program in a higher-level language (often the C programming language); the high-level language program is then translated into machine code by a compiler We shall devote one of the next subsections to programming issues Number Systems and Number Codes in Digital Computers
Number Systems
It should be already clear that computers operate on the basis of the binary number system The binary and hexadecimal number systems were introduced in 13 The hexadecimal system is particularly well suited for use in computer codes, because it allows a much more compact notation than the binary code would The hexadecimal code, as you will recall, permits expressing a four-bit binary number as a single-digit, using the numbers from 0 to 9 and the letters A
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