barcode reader code in c# net Figure 171 A rotating electric machine in Software

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Figure 171 A rotating electric machine
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Part III Table 171 Con gurations of the three types of electric machines Machine type DC Winding Input and output Magnetizing Input and output Magnetizing Input Output Winding type Armature Field Armature Field Primary Secondary Location Rotor Stator Stator Rotor Stator Rotor Current
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Note that in Figure 171 we have explicitly shown the direction of two magnetic elds: that of the rotor, BR , and that of the stator, BS Although these elds are generated by different means in different machines (eg, permanent magnets, AC currents, DC currents), the presence of these elds is what causes a rotating machine to turn and enables the generation of electric power In particular, we see that in Figure 171 the north pole of the rotor eld will seek to align itself with the south pole of the stator eld It is this magnetic attraction force that permits the generation of torque in an electric motor; conversely, a generator exploits the laws of electromagnetic induction to convert a changing magnetic eld to an electric current To simplify the discussion in later sections, we shall presently introduce some basic concepts that apply to all rotating electric machines Referring to Figure 172, we note that for all machines the force on a wire is given by the expression f = iw l B (171)
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where iw is the current in the wire, l is a vector along the direction of the wire, and denotes the cross product of two vectors Then the torque for a multiturn coil
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Figure 172 Stator and rotor elds and the force acting on a rotating machine
17
Introduction to Electric Machines
becomes T = KBiw sin where B = magnetic ux density caused by the stator eld K = constant depending on coil geometry = angle between B and the normal to the plane of the coil In the hypothetical machine of Figure 172, there are two magnetic elds: one generated within the stator, the other within the rotor windings Either (but not both) of these elds could be generated either by a current or by a permanent magnet Thus, we could replace the permanent-magnet stator of Figure 172 with a suitably arranged winding to generate a stator eld in the same direction If the stator were made of a toroidal coil of radius R (see 16), then the magnetic eld of the stator would generate a ux density B, where B = H = Ni 2 R (173) (172)
and where N is the number of turns and i is the coil current The direction of the torque is always the direction determined by the rotor and stator elds as they seek to align to each other (ie, counterclockwise in the diagram of Figure 171) It is important to note that Figure 172 is merely a general indication of the major features and characteristics of rotating machines A variety of con gurations exist, depending on whether each of the elds is generated by a current in a coil or by a permanent magnet, and on whether the load and magnetizing currents are direct or alternating The type of excitation (AC or DC) provided to the windings permits a rst classi cation of electric machines (see Table 171) According to this classi cation, one can de ne the following types of machines:
Direct-current machines: DC current in both stator and rotor Synchronous machines: AC current in one winding, DC in the other Induction machines: AC current in both
In most industrial applications, the induction machine is the preferred choice, because of the simplicity of its construction However, the analysis of the performance of an induction machine is rather complex On the other hand, DC machines are quite complex in their construction but can be analyzed relatively simply with the analytical tools we have already acquired Therefore, the progression of this chapter will be as follows We start with a section that discusses the physical construction of DC machines, both motors and generators Then we continue with a discussion of synchronous machines, in which one of the currents is now alternating, since these can easily be understood as an extension of DC machines Finally, we consider the case where both rotor and stator currents are alternating, and analyze the induction machine Performance Characteristics of Electric Machines As already stated earlier in this chapter, electric machines are energy-conversion devices, and we are therefore interested in their energy-conversion ef ciency Typical applications of electric machines as motors or generators must take into
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