barcode reader code in c# net Figure 1814 Power supply for stepping motor in Software

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Figure 1814 Power supply for stepping motor
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Figure 1815 One- and two-phase excitation waveforms for stepper motors
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In addition to the classi cation of the excitation by phase, stepping motor drives are also classi ed according to whether the drive supplies are unipolar or bipolar, that is, whether they can supply current in one or both directions Unipolar excitation is clearly simpler, although in the case of the two-phase excitation mode,
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Driver DC supply Stepping motor
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Input pulse Phase A Phase B 1 0 1 0 1 Phase A 0 Phase B Simplified unipolar drive circuit diagram 1 0
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Input signal pulses and the change in phase excitation of unipolar drive
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Figure 1816 Unipolar drive for stepper motor
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only half of the motor windings are used, with an obvious decrease in performance Figure 1817 shows a circuit diagram of the unipolar drive and the sequence of phase excitation
A R A
VS R VS
A R B Simplified single-power-supply bipolar drive circuit diagram VS
Simplified two-power-supply bipolar drive circuit diagram Input pulse 1 Coil A 0 1 1 Coil B 0 1
Input pulse signals and the change in phase excitation of bipolar drive
Figure 1817 Bipolar drive for stepper motors
When a bipolar drive is used, motor windings are used effectively, because of the bidirectional exciting current; when operated in this mode, a stepping motor can generate a large output torque at low speed compared with the unipolar drive Figure 1817 shows two versions of the bipolar drive The rst requires two power supplies, one for each polarity, while the second requires only one power supply but needs four switching transistors per phase to reverse the polarity
Part III
Electromechanics
Check Your Understanding
185 Explain why the term variable-reluctance is used to describe the class of stepping motors so named 186 Determine the smallest increment in angular position that can be obtained with a PM stepper motor with six stator teeth and three-phase current excitation 187 Express the stepping sequence of the variable-reluctance stepping motor of Example 184 as a four-digit binary sequence 188 Derive the excitation waveforms corresponding to the direction of rotation opposite to that caused by the stepping sequence shown in Figure 1814 189 For Example 186, express the torque in units of lb-in
SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS
The switched reluctance (SR) machine is the simplest electric machine that permits variable-speed operation Today, this machine nds increasingly common application in variable-speed drives for industrial applications and in traction drives for automotive propulsion It is a widely held belief that the SR motor forms the basis of an ideal electric and hybrid-electric vehicle traction drive because of its low cost Figure 1818 depicts the simplest con guration of a reluctance machine and illustrates how the reluctance and inductance of the machine change as a function of position Note that the magnetic circuit consists only of iron and air no permanent magnets are required! Note also that the rotor is a salient-pole iron element, which is the lowest-cost rotor that can be manufactured When a current is supplied to the coil, the rotor will experience a torque seeking to align it with the magnetic poles of the stator; when = 0, the torque is zero and the rotor will no longer move, having reached its minimum reluctance position Note that minimum reluctance corresponds to minimum stored energy in the system Thus,
Stator axis Iron stator i + v N Iron rotor vm L(Q) L Ld Lq
L d (a) u Rotor axis (b)
Figure 1818 (a) Basic reluctance machine and (b) inductance variation as a function of position
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the torque in the motor is developed because of the change in reluctance with rotor position This principle makes the reluctance machine different from all other (AC or DC) machines discussed so far Note also that this machine is one of a few machines, along with the induction motor and VR step motor, to be singly excited, that is, to have a single source of magnetic eld (whether generated by a coil or by a permanent magnet) One can think of the basic reluctance machine as a salient-pole synchronous machine without any eld excitation The switched reluctance machine is a special variation of the simple reluctance machine shown in Figure 1818 that relies on continuous switching of currents in the stator to guarantee motion of the rotor It is also a true reluctance machine in that it has salient poles both in the rotor and in the stator The con guration of a typical SR machine is shown in Figure 1819 Note that the con guration of the SR machine is very similar to that of a VR step motor, discussed in the preceding section The primary difference between the two is that the SR machine is designed for continuous and not stepped (discrete) motion The advent of lowcost power semiconductors, especially GTOs, IGBTs and power MOSFETs (see 11) has made it possible to reliably control SR machines With reference to Figure 1819, you can see that the stator of a SR machine is wound through slots, with simple solenoid-type windings, and is similar to that of an induction or synchronous AC machine This stator can be excited by any multiphase source, such as the three-phase sources described in 17 The SR machine is excited by discrete current pulses that must be timed with respect to the position of the rotor poles with respect to the stator poles, thus requiring position feedback The speed of the rotor is determine by the switching frequency of the stator coil currents
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