barcode reader code in c# net PS loss = IS Rs = (485)2 15 = 353 W in Software

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2 PS loss = IS Rs = (485)2 15 = 353 W
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4 f = 179 rad/s p
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PRf loss = sPf = 005 2799 = 14 W PRb loss = (1 s)Pb = 195 181 = 353 W Pelec = PS loss + PRf loss + PRb loss = 1146 W The ef ciency can be calculated according to the following expression: =1 =1 Pout + Prot + Pcore + Pelec losses =1 losses Pout + Prot + Pcore + Pelec
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30 + 11416 W = 0617 = 617% 21318 + 30 + 11416 W
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Comments: Note that the overall ef ciency of this machine is fairly low Multiphase AC machines can achieve signi cantly higher ef ciencies
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The equations and circuit models in the preceding examples suggest that a single-phase induction motor is capable of sustaining a torque, and of reaching its operating speed, once it is started by external means However, because the magnetic eld in a single-phase winding is stationary, a single-phase motor is not self-starting The speed-torque characteristic of a typical single-phase induction motor shown in Figure 1829 clearly shows that the starting torque for this motor is zero The curve also shows that the motor can operate in either direction, depending on the direction of the initial starting torque, which must be provided by separate means Classi cation of Single-Phase Induction Motors Thus far, we have not mentioned how the initial starting torque can be provided to a single-phase motor In practice, single-phase motors are classi ed by their starting and running characteristics, and several methods exist to provide nonzero starting torque The aim of this section is to classify single-phase motors by describing their con guration on the basis of the method of starting For each class of motor, a torque-speed characteristic will also be described
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Torque Backward direction ns Speed
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Figure 1829 Torque-speed curve of a single-phase induction motor
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Special-Purpose Electric Machines
Split-Phase Motors
Split-phase motors are constructed with two separate stator windings, called main and auxiliary windings; the axes of the two windings are actually at 90 with respect to each other, as shown in Figure 1830 The auxiliary winding current is designed to be out of phase with the main winding current, as a result of different reactances of the two windings Different winding reactances can be attained by having a different ratio of resistance to inductance for example, by increasing the resistance of the auxiliary winding In particular, the auxiliary winding current, Iaux , leads the main winding current, Imain The net effect is that the motor sees a two-phase (unbalanced) current that results in a rotating magnetic eld, as in any polyphase stator arrangement Thus, the motor has a nonzero starting torque, as shown in Figure 1831 Once the motor has started, a centrifugal switch is used to disconnect the auxiliary winding, since a single winding is suf cient to sustain the motion of the rotor The switching action permits the use of relatively high-resistance windings, since these are not used during normal operation and therefore one need not be concerned with the losses associated with a higherresistance winding Figure 1831 also depicts the combined effect of the two modes of operation of the split-phase motor
I + V Imain Main winding Switch Percent torque 200 Iaux Auxiliary winding 100
Main plus auxiliary winding Main winding only
ns Speed Switching speed
Figure 1830 Split-phase motor Figure 1831 Torque-speed curve of split-phase motor
Split-phase motors have appropriate characteristics (at very low cost) for 1 fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps, and other applications in the range of 20 to 1 hp 2
Capacitor-Type Motors
Another method for obtaining a phase difference between two currents that will give rise to a rotating magnetic eld is by the addition of a capacitor Motors that use this arrangement are termed capacitor-type motors These motors make different use of capacitors to provide starting or running capabilities, or a combination of the two The capacitor-start motor is essentially identical to the split-phase motor, except for the addition of a capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding, as shown in Figure 1832 The addition of the capacitor changes the reactance of the auxiliary circuit in such a way as to cause the auxiliary current to lead the main current The advantage of using the capacitor as a means for achieving a phase split is that greater starting torque may be obtained than with the split-phase arrangement A centrifugal switching arrangement is used to disconnect the auxiliary winding above a certain speed, in the neighborhood of 75 percent of synchronous speed
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