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Part III
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Electromechanics
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I + V Imain Main winding Switch
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Percent torque 300 200 100
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Main plus auxiliary winding Main winding only
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C Iaux Auxiliary winding
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ns Speed Switching speed
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Figure 1832 Capacitor-start motor Figure 1833 Torque-speed curve for a capacitor-start motor
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Figure 1833 depicts the torque-speed characteristic of a capacitor-start motor Because of their higher starting torque, these motors are very useful in connection with loads that present a high static torque Examples of such loads are compressors, pumps, and refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment It is also possible to use the capacitor-start motor without the centrifugal switch, leading to a simpler design Motors with this design are called permanent split-capacitor motors; they offer a compromise between running and starting characteristics A typical torque-speed curve is shown in Figure 1834
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Percent torque 200 100 ns Speed + V
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I Switch Imain Main winding C1 C2 Iaux Auxiliary winding
Figure 1834 Torque-speed curve for a permanent split-capacitor motor
Figure 1835 Capacitor-start capacitor-run motor
A further compromise can be achieved by using two capacitors, one to obtain a permanent phase split and the resulting improvement in running characteristics, the other to improve the starting torque A small capacitance is suf cient to improve the running performance, while a much larger capacitor provides the temporary improvement in starting torque A motor with this design is called a capacitorstart capacitor-run motor; its schematic diagram is shown in Figure 1835 Its torque-speed characteristic is similar to that of a capacitor-start motor
EXAMPLE 1812 Analysis of Capacitor-Start Motor
Problem
With reference to Figure 1832, nd the required starting capacitance
18
Special-Purpose Electric Machines
Solution
Known Quantities: Motor operating characteristics; motor circuit parameters Find: Starting capacitance, C Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data:
Motor operating data: 1 hp; 120 V; 60 Hz 3 Circuit parameters: Rm = 45 ; Cm = 37
; Ra = 95
; Xa = 35
Analysis: The purpose of the starting capacitor is to cause the auxiliary winding current,
Iaux a m I Imain V
Iaux , at standstill to lead the main winding current, Imain , by 90 The 90 phase lead will provide the maximum starting torque Figure 1836 shows the phasor diagram for these two currents and the voltage The impedance angle of the main winding is: m = arctan Xm Rm = arctan 37 45 = 394
Knowing that the desired phase shift between the main and auxiliary impedance angles is 90 (see Figure 1836), we compute the impedance angle of the auxiliary winding: a = 394 90 = 506 The minus sign indicates that Iaux leads the terminal voltage The required capacitance can now be calculated from the relationship arctan Xa XC Ra = 506
Figure 1836 Starting phasor diagram for capacitor-start motor
XC = Ra tan( 506 ) + Xa = 95 ( 121) + 35 = 1507 and we can compute the desired capacitance to be: C= 1 1 = 176 10 6 F = 176 F = XC 377 1507
Shaded-Pole Motors
Main winding i
Shading coil
The last type of single-phase induction motor discussed in this chapter is the shaded-pole motor This type of motor operates on a different principle from the motors discussed thus far The stator of a shaded-pole motor has a salient pole construction, as shown in Figure 1837, that includes a shading coil consisting of a copper band wound around part of each pole The ux in the shaded portion of the pole lags behind the ux in the unshaded part, achieving an effect similar to a rotation of the ux in the direction of the shaded part of the pole This ux rotation in effect produces a rotating eld that enables the motor to have a starting torque This 1 construction technique is rather inexpensive and is used in motors up to about 20 hp A typical torque-speed characteristic for a shaded-pole motor is given in Figure 1838
Percent torque 200
Figure 1837 Shaded-pole motor
ns Speed
Figure 1838 Torque-speed curve of a shaded-pole motor
Part III
Electromechanics
EXAMPLE 1813 Split-Phase Motor Nameplate Analysis
Problem
The table below depicts a split-phase motor nameplate Determine the following quantities using nameplate data: 1 2 3 Rated slip Synchronous speed Rated torque
Solution
Known Quantities: Nameplate data Find: s; S ; T Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data:
Split-Phase Fan & Blower Motor 1 3 RPM A Hz 60 PH S F 1,725 55 1 135 DUTY BRG CONT SLEEVE KVA CODE N
Thermal Protected MOD V FR INSCL 4k800 115 48Y B HP
MAX 40 C AMB
Analysis: An explanation of the nameplate for a typical electric motor was given in
17 This example focuses on a few speci c items of interest in the case of a split-phase motor As you can see, the nameplate directly indicates the split-phase motor classi cation Following the Hz designation is the phase information AC systems may have one, two, or three phases Single-phase and three-phase systems are the most common The code letter following KVA CODE indicates the locked-rotor kilovolt-amperes per horsepower, as explained in NEMA Motor and Generator Standards, NEMA Publication Number MG1-1037 The symbol N means that this motor has a maximum locked-rotor kilovolt-amperes per horsepower of 125 Since the motor is rated at 1 hp, 3 the maximum locked-rotor kilovolt-amperes is 125/3 = 4167 The maximum locked-rotor amperes at 115 V will be 4167 kVA/115 V = 3623 A A large percentage of fractional-horsepower motors are now provided with built-in thermal protection The use of such protection will also be indicated in the motor nameplate here, for example, by THERMAL PROTECTED Bearing is abbreviated as BRG Fractional-horsepower motors normally use one of two types of bearings: sleeve or ball A variety of additional information may appear on the nameplate This may include instructions for connecting the motor to a source of supply, reversing the direction of rotation, lubricating the motor, or operating it safely For the machine in this example, the synchronous speed is ns = 1,800 rev/min The slip at rated speed is s= ns n 1,800 1,725 = 0042 = ns 1,800
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