barcode reader using vb net source code Consider this portion of an E. coli chromosome: thr ara leu in Software

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34. Consider this portion of an E. coli chromosome: thr ara leu
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Draw a map of these three mutants (1, 2, and 3) and indicate the distances between them.
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Three ara loci, ara-1, ara-2, and ara-3, are located in the ara region. A mutant of each locus (ara-1 , ara2 , and ara-3 ) was isolated, and their order with respect to thr and leu was analyzed by transduction. The donor was always thr leu and the recipient was always thr leu . Each ara mutant was used as a donor in one cross and as a recipient in another; ara transductants were selected in each case. The ara transductants were then scored for leu and thr . Based on the following results, determine the order of the ara mutants with respect to thr and leu.
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Cross 1 2 3 4 5 6 Recipient ara-1 ara-2 ara-1 ara-3 ara-2 ara-3 Donor ara-2 ara-1 ara-3 ara-1 ara-3 ara-2 Ratio: thr ara leu thr ara leu 48.5 2.4 4.0 19.1 1.5 25.5
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32. De ne and illustrate specialized and generalized transduction. 33. In E. coli, the three loci ara, leu, and ilvH are within 1/2-minute map distance apart. To determine the exact order and relative distance, the prototroph (ara leu ilvH ) was infected with transducing phage P1. The lysate was used to infect the auxotroph (ara leu ilvH ).The ara classes of transductants were selected to produce the following data:
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ara leu ilvH 32 ara leu ilvH 9 ara leu ilvH 0 ara leu ilvH 340
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35. An E. coli strain that is leu thr azir is used as a donor in a transduction of a strain that is leu thr azis. Either leu or thr transductants are selected and then scored for unselected markers. The results are obtained:
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Selected Marker leu leu thr thr Unselected Markers 48% azir 2% thr 3% leu 0% azir
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Outline the speci c techniques used to isolate the various transduced classes. What is the gene order and what are the relative cotransduction frequencies between genes Why do some classes occur so infrequently
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What is the order of the three loci
C R I T I C A L
T H I N K I N G
Q U E S T I O N S
1. Consider the data from table 7.4. Is there another way to interpret the data other than coming from a circular bacterial chromosome
2. Why might transformation have evolved, given that the bacterium is importing DNA from a dead organism
Suggested Readings for chapter 7 are on page B-4.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
8. Cytogenetics
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
CYTO GENETICS
STUDY OBJECTIVES
1. To observe the nature and consequences of chromosomal breakage and reunion 178 2. To observe the nature and consequences of variation in chromosome numbers in human and nonhuman organisms 190
STUDY OUTLINE
Variation in Chromosomal Structure 178 Single Breaks 178 Two Breaks in the Same Chromosome 179 Two Breaks in Nonhomologous Chromosomes 182 Centromeric Breaks 185 Duplications 185 Chromosomal Rearrangements in Human Beings 186 Variation in Chromosome Number 190 Aneuploidy 190 Mosaicism 190 Aneuploidy in Human Beings 192 Euploidy 197 Summary 199 Solved Problems 200 Exercises and Problems 200 Critical Thinking Questions 202 Box 8.1 A Case History of the Use of Inversions to Determine Evolutionary Sequence 182
Chromosomes of an individual with trisomy 21, Down syndrome. ( Dr. Ram Verma /Phototake, NYC.)
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
8. Cytogenetics
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Eight
Cytogenetics
ur understanding of the chromosomal theory of genetics grew primarily through mapping loci, using techniques that require alternative allelic forms, or mutations, of these loci. Changes in the genetic material also occur at a much coarser level the level of cytogenetics, which is a level visible under the light microscope. The word cytogenetics combines the words cytology and genetics; cytology is the study of cells. Cytogenetics is thus de ned as the study of cells from the perspective of genetics. In practice, it is the study of changes in the gross structure and number of chromosomes in cells. In this chapter, we investigate how these alterations happen and what their consequences are to the organism.
II. Centromeric breaks A. Fission B. Fusion
Single Breaks
If a chromosome breaks, the broken ends may rejoin. When the broken ends of a single chromatid rejoin (in a process called restitution), there is no consequence to the break. If they do not rejoin, the result is an acentric fragment, without a centromere, and a centric fragment, with a centromere. The centric fragment migrates normally during the division process because it has a centromere.The acentric fragment, however, is soon lost. It is subsequently excluded from the nuclei formed and eventually degrades. In other words, the viable, centric part of thechromosome has suffered a deletion. After mitosis, the daughter cell that receives the deletion chromosome may show several effects. Pseudodominance is one possible effect. (This term was used in chapter 5 when we described alleles located on the X chromosome. With only one copy of the locus present, a recessive allele in males shows itself in the phenotype as if it were dominant hence the term pseudodominance.) The normal chromosome homologous to the deletion chromosome has loci in the region, and recessive alleles show pseudodominance. A second possible effect is that, depending on the length of the deleted segment and the speci c loci lost, the imbalance the deletion chromosome creates in the daughter cell may be lethal. If the deletion occurs before or during meiosis, it may be observed under the microscope. We discuss this event later in the chapter. A single break can have yet another effect. Occasionally, the two centric fragments of a single chromosome may join, forming a two-centromere, or dicentric, chromosome and leaving the two acentric fragments to join or, alternatively, remain as two fragments ( g. 8.1). The acentric fragments are lost, as mentioned before. Because the centromeres are on sister chromatids, the dicentric fragment is pulled to opposite ends of a mitotic cell forming a bridge there; or, if meiosis is occurring, the dicentric fragment is pulled apart during the second meiotic division. The ultimate fate of this bridge is breakage as the spindle bers pull the centromeres to opposite poles (or possibly exclusion from a new nucleus if the bridge is not broken). The dicentric chromosome does not necessarily break in the middle, and subsequent processes exacerbate the imbalance created by an off-center break: duplications occur on one strand, whereas more deletions occur on the other ( g. 8.2). In addition, the sticky ends produced on both fragments increase the likelihood of repeating this breakagefusion-bridge cycle in each generation. The great imbalances resulting from the duplications and deletions usually cause the cell line to die within several generations.
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