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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
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2. Mendel s Principles
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Green cotyledons
Gray coat (violet flowers)
White coat (white flowers)
Pods
Full
Constricted
Green
Yellow
Stem
Axial pods and flowers along stem
Terminal pods and flowers on top of stem
Tall (6 7 ft)
Dwarf (3/4 1 ft)
Seven characteristics that Mendel observed in peas. Traits in the left column are dominant.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
2. Mendel s Principles
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Two Mendel s Principles
Tall
Dwarf
Self
Tall
Tall 3 : 1
Dwarf
Figure 2.4 First two offspring generations from the cross of tall plants with dwarf plants.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
2. Mendel s Principles
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Segregation
TT Tall
tt Dwarf
Schematic
Gametes
Pollen Tt Ovule Tt
(as in fig. 2.5)
Tt Tall
Self
T + T TT 1
T + t Tt 2
t + T
t + t tt 1
Gametes
Diagrammatic (Punnett square)
3/4 Tall
tt T
Ovules 1/4 Dwarf
Pollen
t Tt tt TT Tt tt 1 : 2 : 1
TT Tt
3:1 Figure 2.5
Assigning genotypes to the cross in gure 2.4.
Probabilistic
the genotype of the parental tall plant is TT; that of the F1 tall plant is Tt. Phenotype refers to the observable attributes of an organism. Plants with either of the two genotypes T T or Tt are phenotypically tall. Genotypes come in two general classes: homozygotes, in which both alleles are the same, as in TT or tt, and heterozygotes, in which the two alleles are different, as in Tt. William Bateson coined these last two terms in 1901. Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen rst used the word gene in 1909. If we look at gure 2.5, we can see that the T T homozygote can produce only one type of gamete, the T-bearing kind, and the tt homozygote can similarly produce only t-bearing gametes. Thus, the F1 individuals are uniformly heterozygous Tt, and each F1 individual can produce two kinds of gametes in equal frequencies, T- or t-bearing. In the F2 generation, these two types of gametes randomly pair during fertilization. Figure 2.6 shows three ways of picturing this process.
(Multiply; see rule 2, chapter 4.) Pollen Ovules
1/2 1/2 T 1/2
1/4 TT 1/4 Tt
2 1/2 1/2
1/4 Tt 1/4 tt 1
Figure 2.6 Methods of determining F2 genotypic combinations in a self-fertilized monohybrid. The Punnett square diagram is named after the geneticist Reginald C. Punnett.
Testing the Rule of Segregation
We can see from gure 2.6 that the F2 generation has a phenotypic ratio of 3:1, the classic Mendelian ratio. However, we also see a genotypic ratio of 1:2:1 for dominant homozygote:heterozygote:recessive homozygote. Demonstrating this genotypic ratio provides a good test of Mendel s rule of segregation. The simplest way to test the hypothesis is by progeny testing, that is, by self-fertilizing F2 individuals to
produce an F3 generation, which Mendel did ( g. 2.7). Treating the rule of segregation as a hypothesis, it is possible to predict the frequencies of the phenotypic classes that would result. The dwarf F2 plants should be recessive homozygotes, and so, when selfed (self-fertilized), they should produce only t-bearing gametes and only dwarf offspring in the F3 generation. The tall F2 plants, however, should be a heterogeneous group, one-third of which should be homozygous T T and two-thirds heterozygous Tt. The tall homozygotes, when selfed, should produce only tall F3 offspring (genotypically TT ). However, the F2 heterozygotes, when selfed, should produce
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
2. Mendel s Principles
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Two Mendel s Principles
Tall F2
Dwarf
Self
Self
Self
Tall 100%
Tall
Dwarf 3 : 1
Dwarf 100%
Figure 2.7 Mendel self-fertilized F2 tall and dwarf plants. He found that all the dwarf plants produced only dwarf progeny. Among the tall plants, 72% produced both tall and dwarf progeny in a 3:1 ratio.
Genotype to be tested
Gamete of aa
Offspring
Gamete
Aa (dominant phenotype) Aa (dominant phenotype) aa (recessive phenotype)
Gamete
Testcross. In a testcross, the phenotype of an offspring is determined by the allele the offspring inherits from the parent with the genotype being tested.
tall and dwarf offspring in a ratio identical to that the selfed F1 plants produced: three tall to one dwarf offspring. Mendel found that all the dwarf (homozygous) F2 plants bred true as predicted. Among the tall, 28% (28/100) bred true (produced only tall offspring) and 72% (72/100) produced both tall and dwarf offspring. Since the prediction was one-third (33.3%) and twothirds (66.7%), respectively, Mendel s observed values were very close to those predicted. We thus conclude that Mendel s progeny-testing experiment con rmed his hypothesis of segregation. In fact, a statistical test developed in chapter 4 would also the support this conclusion. Another way to test the segregation rule is to use the extremely useful method of the testcross, that is, a cross of any organism with a recessive homozygote. (Another type of cross, a backcross, is the cross of a progeny with
Tall (two classes)
an individual that has a parental genotype. Hence, a testcross can often be a backcross.) Since the gametes of the recessive homozygote contain only recessive alleles, the alleles that the gametes of the other parent carry will determine the phenotypes of the offspring. If a gamete from the organism being tested contains a recessive allele, the resulting F1 organism will have a recessive phenotype; if it contains a dominant allele, the F1 organism will have a dominant phenotype. Thus, in a testcross, the genotypes of the gametes from the organism being tested determine the phenotypes of the offspring ( g. 2.8). A testcross of the tall F2 plants in gure 2.5 would produce the results shown in gure 2.9. These results further con rm Mendel s rule of segregation.
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