barcode reader using vb net source code CHEMISTRY OF NUCLEIC ACIDS in Software

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CHEMISTRY OF NUCLEIC ACIDS
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Having identi ed the genetic material as the nucleic acid DNA (or RNA), we proceed to examine the chemical structure of these molecules. Their structure will tell us a good deal about how they function. Nucleic acids are made by joining nucleotides in a repetitive way into long, chainlike polymers. Nucleotides are made of three components: phosphate, sugar, and a nitrogenous base (table 9.1 and g. 9.8). When incorporated into a nucleic acid, a nucleotide contains one of each of the three components. But, when free in the cell
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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9. Chemistry of the Gene1
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Chemistry of the Gene
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Table 9.1 Components of Nucleic Acids
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Base Phosphate DNA RNA Present Present Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Purines Guanine Adenine Guanine Adenine Pyrimidines Cytosine Thymine Cytosine Uracil
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(a) Common type Type M
pool, nucleotides usually occur as triphosphates. The energy held in the extra phosphates is used, among other purposes, to synthesize the polymer. A nucleoside is a sugar-base compound. Nucleotides are therefore nucleoside phosphates ( g. 9.9). (Note that ATP, adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell, is a nucleoside triphosphate.)
Phosphate O Degradation Protein Degradation O P O Sugar RNA Ribose Reconstituted mixed virus Type M protein 5 HOCH2 5 HOCH2 Deoxyribose 4 C O
... also represented
OH O 1 4 C C ... also H H represented 3 2 O HC CH OH OH
OH 1 C H H 3 2 HC CH OH H
Common-type RNA Infection of tobacco leaf
Base
NH2 N 6 1 2 5 C N 7 8 CH 9 N H C H2N O C 5 CH HN C HN
O C C C N Guanine O CH3 HN C O N H Uracil C CH CH N H N CH
Purines
4 C 3 N Adenine NH2
Common-type offspring Pyrimidines N C O 3 2
(b) Figure 9.7
(a) Electron micrograph of tobacco mosaic virus. Magni cation 37,428 . (b) Reconstitution experiment of Fraenkel-Conrat and Singer. The nucleic acid (RNA), not the protein component of the virus, controls inheritance.
6 CH C CH 1 N N O H H Thymine Cytosine
([a] Biology Media/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
Components of nucleic acids: phosphate, sugars, and bases. Primes are used to number the ring positions in the sugars to differentiate them from the ring positions in the bases.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
9. Chemistry of the Gene1
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Chemistry of Nucleic Acids
BOX 9.2
ithout exception, the genetic material is either DNA or RNA; it is RNA only in a few viruses. Since virtually all transmissible diseases are of bacterial or viral origin, this means that transmissible diseases are also caused by organisms with DNA or RNA as their genetic material. However, in one interesting situation, a transmissible disease appears to be caused by an agent without genetic material. Four human neurological diseases and six similar animal diseases are caused, we believe, by proteins without DNA or RNA. (Two conditions in yeast are probably caused in a similar way.) The human diseases are kuru, CreutzfeldtJakob disease, Gerstmann-Str usslerScheinker syndrome, and a recently discovered fatal familial insomnia. The animal diseases are scrapie (sheep and goats), four encephalopathies (bovine, feline, ungulate, and mink), and chronic wasting disease (deer and elk). All of these diseases are extremely slow to develop, all are fatal, and all are believed to be caused either by the ingestion of a protein from an infected individual or from a mutation of the normal gene. None of the diseases as yet has a cure, and the mechanism of action is not completely understood. The diseases appear to be caused by a protein, similar to one normally produced in the brain of healthy individuals. The term prion (taken from proteinaceous infectious particle) has been given to these agents by Stanley Prusiner at the University of California in San Francisco, a 1997 Nobel laureate. He, along with colleagues,
Biomedical Applications
Prions: The Biological Equivalent of Ice-Nine
isolated the prion protein (PrP) and recently located the gene that codes for the protein on the short arm of chromosome 20. In addition to the infective form, a familial (inherited) form of these diseases can result from a mutation of the gene that codes for the prion protein active in normal individuals (probably at least all mammals). The normal protein is termed PrPC, and the mutated form is referred to as PrPSc. Normally, PrPC is a glycoprotein found on the membrane surface of the cells of the brain and some other tissues. Although no cures exist for these diseases, kuru, at least, seems to be almost eradicated. It was found only among people in part of New Guinea who practiced cannibalism. Once the people stopped this practice, the spread of the disease also ceased; kuru does not seem to be generated to any major extent by mutation. By controlling feeding practices, it is believed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy will also disappear. In the past, cows were fed protein supplements contaminated by material from infected animals. In England, a recent epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy
(BSE, or mad cow disease) peaked in 1992 1993, affecting over 160,000 cattle. At least fourteen cases of a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people in England and France were attributed to eating affected beef, creating a panic in England. With a change away from using animal matter in cattle feed and a culling of cattle herds, the epidemic has ended. However, new human cases may show up in the future owing to the long incubation period of this prion disease. The obvious question is, how does a protein that does not appear to contain genetic material cause a transmissible disease when ingested Prusiner has suggested several mechanisms that would allow an infective protein to induce copies of the normal protein to become infective. One of these mechanisms involves a cascade in which an infective PrPSc binds with a normal PrPC, resulting in two infective PrPSc proteins. From this, one produces two, two produce four, four produce eight, and so on. As Nancy Touchette, writing in The Journal of NIH Research, pointed out, this is the way Kurt Vonnegut described the behavior of the mythical ice-nine in his 1963 book, Cat s Cradle. In this ctional account, a single seed caused all of the water on earth, by a chain reaction cascade, to form into a novel type of ice. We have not yet resorted to science ction to answer the mystery of prion function; however, it seems reasonable to guess that an eventual understanding of the mechanism of prion function will provide us with a biological novelty.
The sugars differ only in the presence (ribose in RNA) or absence (deoxyribose in DNA) of an oxygen in the 2 position. (The carbons of the sugars are numbered 1 to 5 .The primes are used to avoid confusion with the numbering system of the bases; see g. 9.8.) DNA and RNA both have four bases (two purines and two pyrimidines) in their nucleotide chains. Both molecules have
the purines adenine and guanine and the pyrimidine cytosine. DNA has the pyrimidine thymine; RNA has the pyrimidine uracil. Thus, three of the nitrogenous bases are found in both DNA and RNA, whereas thymine is unique to DNA, and uracil is unique to RNA. A nucleotide is formed in the cell when a base attaches to the 1 carbon of the sugar and a phosphate attaches to
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