barcode reader using vb net source code Termination of Replication in Software

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Termination of Replication
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The termination of the replication of a circular chromosome presents no major topological problems. At the end of the theta-structure replication (see g. 9.22), both Y-junctions have proceeded around the molecule. The region of termination on the E. coli chromosome, the terminus region, is 180 degrees from oriC on the circular chromosome, between minutes 28 and 36. There are six terminator sites (Ter); three arrest the Y-junction from the left, and three arrest the one from the right when bound by a termination protein, the protein product of the tus gene. (Tus stands for terminus utilization substance; each Ter site is about twenty base pairs.) One interesting aspect of the termination of E. coli DNA replication is that the cells are viable even if the whole terminator region is deleted. There are fewer viable cells and some growth problems, but in general, E. coli can successfully terminate DNA replication even without formal termination sites. A topoisomerase, topoisomerase IV, then releases the two circles, and DNA polymerase I and ligase close them up ( g. 9.39).
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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9. Chemistry of the Gene1
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Negatively supercoiled
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L = 48
L= 50
L = 52
Figure 9.37 Positive and negative supercoils. Enzymes called topoisomerases can take relaxed DNA (center) and add negative (left) or positive (right) supercoils. L is the linkage number.
E. coli Topoisomerase I
Bind strand I (red)
Open strand I
Pass strand II (blue) through strand I
Close strand I
Release DNA
DNA is less coiled
Topoisomerase I can reduce DNA coiling by breaking one strand of the double helix and passing the other strand through it.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
9. Chemistry of the Gene1
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Nine
Chemistry of the Gene
create the septum that will divide the cell into two. The full complexity involved in E. coli chromosomal partitioning should be uncovered in the near future.
R E P L I C AT I O N S T R U C T U R E S
DNA replication at Y- junctions
The E. coli model of DNA replication that we have presented here is by way of the intermediate theta-structure (see g. 9.22). Two other modes of replication occur in circular chromosomes: rolling-circle and D-loop.
Rolling-Circle Model
In the rolling-circle mode of replication, a nick (a break in one of the phosphodiester bonds) is made in one of the strands of the circular DNA, resulting in replication of a circle and a tail ( g. 9.40). This form of replication occurs in the F plasmid or E. coli Hfr chromosome during conjugation (see chapter 7).The F or Hfr cell retains the circular daughter while passing the linear tail into the F cell, where replication of the tail takes place. Several phages also use this method, lling their heads (protein coats) with linear DNA replicated from a circular parent molecule.
Topoisomerase separates circles Single-strand gap
DNA polymerase I and ligase close the circles
D-Loop Model
Chloroplasts and mitochondria (in eukaryotic cells) have their own circular DNA molecules (see chapter 17) that appear to replicate by a slightly different mechanism.The origin of replication is at a different point on each of the two parental template strands. Replication begins on one strand, displacing the other while forming a displacement loop or D-loop structure ( g. 9.41). Replication continues until the process passes the origin of replication on the other strand. Replication then initiates on the second strand, in the opposite direction. Normal Y-junction replication, as described earlier, also occurs in mitochondrial DNA under some growth conditions.
The replication of circular DNA terminates when topoisomerase separates the circles and DNA polymerase I and ligase close the gaps in each circle.
DNA Partitioning in E. coli
In chapter 3, we discussed processes that partition eukaryotic chromosomes between daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis. Until very recently, geneticists believed that the partitioning of the E. coli chromosome was a passive process, unlike that in eukaryotes. Now, however, we know that more complexity is involved in E. coli DNA partitioning. When DNA replication begins, the newly replicated origins of replication are segregated to opposite ends of the bacterial cell, acting as centromeres do. A ring of proteins, the products of the FtsZ gene, form a ring at the middle of the cell and begin to
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