barcode scanning in c#.net Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic in Software

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Table 10.3 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
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RNA Polymerases
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Enzyme Prokaryotic RNA polymerase Primase Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I RNA polymerase II RNA polymerase III Primase Transcribes nucleolar organizer Transcribes most genes Transcribes 5S rRNA and tRNA genes Primer synthesis during DNA replication Transcribes DNA template Primer synthesis during DNA replication Function
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At the nucleolar organizer, the nucleolus forms the familiar dark blob found in eukaryotic nuclei. The nucleolus is the place where ribosomes are assembled. The various ribosomal proteins that have been manufactured in the cytoplasm migrate to the nucleus and eventually to the nucleolus, where, with the nal forms of the ribosomal RNAs, they are assembled into ribosomes. In the nucleolar organizer, an untranscribed region of spacer DNA separates each repeat of the large ribosomal RNA gene. This is shown in gure 10.20 and diagrammed in gure 10.21. In the electron micrograph in gure 10.20, the polarity of transcription is evident from the short RNA at one end of the transcribing segment and the long RNA at the other end, with a uniform gradation between. Notice that many RNA polymerases are transcribing each region at the same time. The regions between the transcribed DNA segments are the spacer DNA regions. Like transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs are also modi ed: some uridines are converted to pseudouridines, and some
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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10. Gene Expression: Transcription
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Eukaryotic DNA Transcription
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ribose sugars are methylated. These conversions take place in the nucleolus, orchestrated by particles composed of small RNA segments and protein. The RNA segments are referred to as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and, when combined with protein, are referred to as small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (snoRNPs). Each different snoRNP has a snoRNA that is complementary to the regions surrounding the nucleotide to be modi ed. Thus, sites for modi cation are chosen based on complementarity to a snoRNA, which then somehow directs the modi cation to take place.
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5 rRNA at start of transcription 3 etc. RNA polymerase I Transcription
Differences Between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Transcription
Although all aspects of transcription differ to some extent between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, we will look at two major differences here: the coupling of transcription and translation that is possible in prokaryotes, and the extensive posttranscriptional modi cations that occur in eukaryotic messenger RNA. In E. coli, translation of the newly transcribed messenger RNA into a protein can take place before transcription is complete ( g. 10.22). The messenger RNA is synthesized in the 5 3 direction, and it is
Figure 10.21 rRNA near final size
Double helix DNA
Spacer DNA
Details of the transcription of the large ribosomal RNA genes shown in gure 10.20. Note the polarity of the process and the spacer DNA, as seen in gure 10.20.
RNA polymerase DNA
Ribosome
Messenger RNA 5
Growing polypeptide
(a) In prokaryotes, translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes begins before transcription is complete. Ribosomes attach to the growing mRNA strand when the 5 end becomes accessible. They then move along the RNA as it elongates. When the rst ribosome moves from the 5 end, a second ribosome can attach, and so on. (b) Electron micrograph of events diagrammed in (a). The growing polypeptides cannot be seen in this preparation. Magni cation 44,000 .
([b] Courtesy of O. L. Miller, Jr.)
DNA RNA polymerase mRNA Ribosomes
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
10. Gene Expression: Transcription
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Ten
Gene Expression: Transcription
near the 5 end that translation begins. As soon as the 5 end of the RNA is available, a ribosome can attach to the messenger RNA and move along it in the 5 3 direction, lengthening the growing polypeptide as it moves. When the rst ribosome moves away from the 5 end of the transcript, a second ribosome can attach and begin translation. These processes are repetitive, as electron micrographs ( g. 10.22b) clearly show. In eukaryotes, however, messenger RNA is synthesized in the nucleus, but protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm. (This regional division of labor is not present in E. coli because, among other reasons, the bacterium has no nucleus.) Before a eukaryotic messenger RNA leaves the nucleus, it is highly modi ed by processes that generally do not occur in prokaryotes.
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