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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
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2. Mendel s Principles
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Expt. 1. Form of seed. From 253 hybrids 7,324 seeds were obtained in the second trial year. Among them were 5,474 round or roundish ones and 1,850 angular wrinkled ones. Therefrom the ratio 2.96 to 1 is deduced. If A be taken as denoting one of the two constant characters, for instance the dominant, a the recessive, and Aa the hybrid form in which both are conjoined, the expression
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108 round and green, 32 wrinkled and green. Consequently the offspring of the hybrids, if two kinds of differentiating characters are combined therein, are represented by the expression
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(In today s notation we would write AA BB 2Aa 2Bb aa bb.)
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AB Ab aB ab 2ABb 2aBb 2AaB 2Aab 4AaBb. (In today s notation, we would write: AABB AAbb aaBB aabb 2AABb 2aaBb 2AaBB 2Aabb 4AaBb.)
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This expression is indisputably a combination series in which the two expressions for the characters A and a, B and b are combined. We arrive at the full number of the classes of the series by the combination of the expressions
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shows the terms in the series for the progeny of the hybrids of two differentiating characters.
Mendel used a notation system different from ours. He designated heterozygotes with both alleles (e.g., Aa) but homozygotes with only one allele or the other (e.g., A for our AA). Thus, whereas he recorded A 2Aa a, we would record AA 2Aa aa. Mendel then went on to discuss the dihybrids. He mentions the genotypic ratio of 1:2:1:2:4: 2:1:2:1 and the principle of independent assortment:
The fertilized seeds appeared round and yellow like those of the seed parents. The plants raised therefrom yielded seeds of four sorts, which frequently presented themselves in one pod. In all, 556 seeds were yielded by 15 plants, and of those there were: 315 round and yellow, 101 wrinkled and yellow,
There is therefore no doubt that for the whole of the characters involved in the experiments the principle applies that the offspring of the hybrids in which several essentially different characters are combined exhibit the terms of a series of combinations, in which the developmental series for each pair of differentiating characters are united. It is demonstrated at the same time that the relation of each pair of different characters in hybrid union is independent of the other differences in the two original parental stocks.
2Aa 2Bb
Table 1 is a summary of all the data Mendel presented on monohybrids (the data from only one dihybrid and one trihybrid cross were presented):
Table 1 Mendel s Data
Dominant Phenotype Recessive Phenotype Ratio
Seed form Cotyledon color Seed coat color Pod form Pod color Flower position Stem length Total
5,474 6,022 705 882 428 651 787 14,949
1,850 2,001 224 299 152 207 277 5,010
2.96:1 3.01:1 3.15:1 2.95:1 2.82:1 3.14:1 2.84:1 2.98:1
Source: Copyright The Royal Horticultural Society. Taken from the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, vol. 26. Pg. 1 32. 1901.
seeds are actually genetically heterogeneous, with phenotypes made up of several genotypes. For example, the dominant phenotypic class, with round, yellow seeds, represents four genotypes: RRYY, RRYy, RrYY, and RrYy. When we group all the genotypes by phenotype, we obtain the ratio shown in gure 2.16. Thus, with complete dominance, a self-fertilized dihybrid gives a 9:3:3:1 phe-
notypic ratio in its offspring (F2). A 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1 genotypic ratio also occurs in the F2 generation. If the two genes exhibited incomplete dominance or codominance, the latter would also be the phenotypic ratio. What ratio would be obtained if one gene exhibited dominance and the other did not An example of this case appears in gure 2.17.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
2. Mendel s Principles
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Two Mendel s Principles
BOX 2.2
verwhelming evidence gathered during this century has proven the correctness of Mendel s conclusions. However, close scrutiny of Mendel s paper has led some to suggest that (1) Mendel failed to report the inheritance of traits that did not show independent assortment and (2) Mendel fabricated numbers. Both these claims are, on the surface, dif cult to ignore; both have been countered effectively. The rst claim that Mendel failed to report crosses involving traits that did not show independent assortment arises from the observation that all seven traits that Mendel studied do show independent assortment and that the pea plant has precisely seven pairs of chromosomes. For Mendel to have chosen seven genes, one located on each of the seven chromosomes, by chance alone seems extremely unlikely. In fact, the probability would be
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