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Overlapping, two bases no punctuation codon 1 codon 2 codon 3 codon 4 codon 5 codon 6 codon 7 codon 8 codon 9 codon 10
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Punctuation Nonoverlapping, punctuation codon Figure 11.30 C A G C A G C A G C A G 1 2 3
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The genetic code is read as a nonoverlapping code with no punctuation (top). Before that was proven, it was suggested that the code could overlap by one or two bases (middle) or have noncoded bases (punctuation) between code words (bottom).
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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11. Gene Expression: Translation
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The Genetic Code
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Table 11.3 Structure of Arti cial mRNA Made by
Randomly Assembling Uracil- and Guanine-Containing Ribose Diphosphate Nucleotides with a Ratio of 5U:lG
Codon UUU UUG UGU GUU UGG GUG GGU GGG Frequency of Occurrence (5/6)3 (5/6)2(1/6) (5/6) (1/6) (5/6)2(1/6) (5/6)(1/6)2 (5/6)(1/6)
codon 3 -GAC-5 is charged with leucine.The mixture is passed through a lter. If threonine, or any other amino acid except leucine, is radioactive, the radioactivity passes through the lter. When the experiment is repeated with radioactive leucine, the leucine, and hence the radioactivity, is trapped by the lter. In a short period of time, all of the codons were deciphered (table 11.4).
0.58 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.005
Wobble Hypothesis
The genetic code is a degenerate code, meaning that a given amino acid may have more than one codon.As you can see from table 11.4, eight of the sixteen boxes contain just one amino acid per box.(A box is determined by the rst and second positions; e.g., the UUX box, in which X is any of the four bases.) Therefore, for these eight amino acids, the codon need only be read in the rst two positions because the same amino acid will be represented regardless of the third base of the codon. These eight groups of codons are termed unmixed families of codons.An unmixed family is the four codons beginning with the same two bases that specify a single amino acid. For example, the codon family GUX codes for valine. Mixed families code for two amino acids or for stop signals and one or two amino acids. Six of the mixed-family boxes are split in half so that the codons are differentiated by the presence of a purine or a pyrimidine in the third base. For example, CAU and
(5/6)(1/6)2 (1/6)3
ride, could bind trinucleotides as if they were messenger RNAs. Also bound was the transfer RNA that carried the anticodon complementary to the trinucleotide. It was thus possible, using radioactive amino acids, to determine which messenger RNA trinucleotide coded for a particular amino acid.A given synthetic trinucleotide was mixed with ribosomes and aminoacyl-tRNAs, including one radioactively labeled amino acid. The reaction mixture was passed over a lter that would allow everything except the large trinucleotide ribosome aminoacyltRNA complex to pass through.If the radioactivity passed through the lter, it meant that the radioactive amino acid was not associated with the ribosome. The experiment was then repeated with another labeled amino acid.When the radioactivity appeared on the lter, the investigators knew that the amino acid was af liated with the ribosome.Thus, that amino acid was coded by the selected trinucleotide codon. In other words, the radioactive amino acid was attached to a transfer RNA whose anticodon was complementary to the trinucleotide codon and thus bound at the ribosome. Figure 11.31 shows an example. In the gure, the trinucleotide is 5 -CUG-3 .The transfer RNA with the antiPhillip Leder (1934 ).
(Courtesy of Dr. Phillip Leder.)
Ribosome
UGU 5
GAC CUG 3
Trinucleotide
Blocked by filter
Passes through filter
Cellulose nitrate filter
Figure 11.31 The binding assay determines the amino acid associated with a given trinucleotide codon. Transfer RNAs with noncomplementary codons pass through the membrane. Transfer RNAs with anticodons complementary to the trinucleotide bind to the ribosome and do not pass through the lter. When the transfer RNA is charged with a radioactive amino acid, the radioactivity is trapped on the lter.
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