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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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11. Gene Expression: Translation
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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The Genetic Code
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Table 11.6 The Genetic Code Dictionary of Yeast Mitochondria*
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First Position (5 End) U Phe AAG U Leu AAU Ser AGU stop His GUG C Thr GAU Pro GGU Gln GUU Ile UAG A Met UAC Thr UGU Lys UUU Asp CUG G Val CAU Ala CGU Glu CUU Gly CCU Arg UCU Asn UUG Ser UCG Arg GCA Trp ACU C A Tyr AUG G Cys ACG Third Position (3 End) U C A G U C A G U C A G U C A G
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Source: Data from S. Bonitz, et al., Codon recognition rules in yeast mitochondria, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77:3167 70, 1980. * Anticodons (3 5 ) are given within boxes. (The ACU Trp anticodon is predicted.)
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Table 11.7 Common and Alternative Meanings of Codons
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Codon CUX AUA UGA AGA/AGG CGG UAA/UAG UAG General Meaning Leu Ile Stop Arg Arg Stop Stop Alternative Meaning Thr in yeast mitochondria Met in mitochondria of yeast, Drosophila, and vertebrates Trp in mycoplasmas and mitochondria other than higher plants Stop in mitochondria of yeast and vertebrates Ser in mitochondria of Drosophila Trp in mitochondria of higher plants Gln in ciliated protozoa Ala or Leu in mitochondria of some higher plants
stem-loop structure 3 (downstream) from the amber codon (UAG),a selenocysteine elongation factor (SELB) is also needed at the ribosome.This same mechanism may occur in eukaryotes, but not all of the components have yet been identi ed.
Evolution of the Genetic Code
It has been theorized that the genetic code has wobble in it because it originally arose from a code in which only the rst two bases were needed for the small number of amino acids in use several billion years ago. As new amino acids with useful properties became available, they were incorporated into proteins by a code modi ed by the third base,albeit with less speci city.This view has support from the fact that codons starting with the same
nucleotide come from the same biosynthetic pathway. This indicates that in early evolution, as biosynthetic pathways were extended to new amino acids, the newcomers were incorporated by use of the second and third bases of the code. However, the question remains as to whether the genetic code is highly evolved or just a frozen accident. In other words, is there a relationship between the codons and the amino acids they code for, or is the code just one of many random possibilities Recent computer simulations of random codes indicate that the current genetic code is far outside the range of random in its ability to protect the organism from mutation. This suggests that the genetic code is not a frozen accident, but rather is highly evolved. Numerous examples in the current code support this view.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
11. Gene Expression: Translation
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Eleven
Gene Expression: Translation
For example, in the unmixed codon family 5 -CUX-3 , any mutation in the third position produces another codon for the same amino acid. Wobble in the third position and codon arrangement ensures that less than half of the mutations in the third codon position result in the speci cation of a different amino acid. There are also patterns in the genetic code in which the mutation of one codon to another results in an amino acid of similar properties. A high probability exists that such a mutation will produce a functional protein.All the codons with U as the middle base, for example, are for amino acids that are hydrophobic (phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and valine). Mutation in
the rst or third positions for any of these codons still codes a hydrophobic amino acid. Both of the two negatively charged amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have codons that start with GA.All of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan (see g. 11.1) have codons that begin with uracil. Such patterns minimize the negative effects of mutation. This chapter completes the discussion of the mechanics of gene expression.The next chapter deals with recombinant DNA technology, followed by several chapters concerned with the control of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
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