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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
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2. Mendel s Principles
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Ratio of genotype in F2 1
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Ratio of phenotype in F2
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recessive alleles of the pea gene (pp) gives a rose comb. A dominant allele of the pea gene (P-) with recessive alleles of the rose gene (rr) gives pea-combed fowl. When both genes are homozygous for the recessive alleles, the fowl are single-combed. Thus, a 9:3:3:1 F2 ratio arises from crossing dihybrid individuals even though different expressions of the same phenotypic characteristic, the comb, are involved. In our previous 9:3:3:1 example (see g. 2.15), we dealt with two separate characteristics: shape and color of peas. In corn (or maize, Zea mays), several different eld varieties produce white kernels on the ears. In certain crosses, two white varieties will result in an F1 generation with all purple kernels. If plants grown from these purple kernels are selfed, the F2 individuals have both purple and white kernels in a ratio of 9:7. How can we explain this We must be dealing with the offspring of dihybrids with each gene segregating two alleles, because the ratio is in sixteenths. Furthermore, we can see that the F2 9:7 ratio is a variation of the 9:3:3:1 ratio. The 3, 3, and 1 categories here are producing the same phenotype and thus make up 7/16 of the F2 offspring. Figure 2.22 outlines the cross. We can see from this gure that the purple color appears only when dominant alleles of both genes are present. When one or both genes have only recessive alleles, the kernels will be white.
16 Figure 2.16
Epistasis
The color of corn kernels illustrates the concept of epistasis, the interaction of nonallelic genes in the formation
The phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the offspring of dihybrid peas.
Independent assortment of two blood systems in human beings. In the ABO system, the IA and IB alleles are codominant. In a simpli ed view of the Rhesus system, the Rh phenotype (D allele) is dominant to the Rh phenotype (d allele).
P1 F1
I AI ADD
I BI Bdd
I AI BDd (F1 X F1)
Male
I AD
I Ad I AI ADd
I BD I AI BDD
I Bd I AI BDd
I AD
I AI ADD
Female
I Ad
I AI ADd
I AI Add
I AI BDd
I AI Bdd
I BD
I AI BDD
I AI BDd
I BI BDD
I BI BDd
I Bd
I AI BDd
I AI Bdd
I BI BDd
I BI Bdd
Phenotype F2 Summary Frequency
A Rh+ 3
A Rh 1
B Rh+ 3
B Rh 1
AB Rh+ 6
AB Rh 2
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
2. Mendel s Principles
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Genotypic Interactions
RrYy RY Ry
rryy
Gametes
rY ry RY ry RrYy (55) Ry Rryy (51) rY rrYy (49) ry rryy (52)
1 : 1 : 1 : 1 Figure 2.18
Testcross of a dihybrid. A 1:1:1:1 ratio is expected in the offspring.
of the phenotype. This is a process analogous to dominance among alleles of one gene. For example, the recessive apterous (wingless) gene in fruit ies is epistatic to any gene that controls wing characteristics; hairy wing is hypostatic to apterous (that is, the recessive apterous gene, when homozygous, masks the presence of the hairy wing gene, because, obviously, without wings, no aa bb cc Self
ABc AA BB Cc AbC AA Bb CC Abc AA Bb Cc
wing characteristics can be expressed). Note that the genetic control of comb type in fowl does not involve epistasis. There are no allelic combinations at one locus that mask genotypes at another locus: the 9:3:3:1 ratio is not an indication of epistasis. To illustrate further the principle of epistasis, we can look at the control of coat color in mice. In one particular example, a pure-breeding black mouse is crossed with a pure-breeding albino mouse (pure white because all pigment is lacking); all of the offspring are agouti (the typical brownish-gray mouse color). When the F1 agouti mice are crossed with each other, agouti, black, and albino offspring appear in the F2 generation in a ratio of 9:3:4. What are the genotypes in this cross The answer appears in gure 2.23. By now it should be apparent that the F2 ratio of 9:3:4 is also a variant of the 9:3:3:1 ratio; it indicates epistasis in a dihybrid cross. What is the mechanism producing this 9:3:4 ratio Of a potential 9:3:3:1 ratio, one of the 3/16 classes and the 1/16 class are combined to create a 4/16 class. Any genotype that includes caca will be albino, masking the A gene, but as long as at least one dominant C allele is present, the A gene can express itself. Mice with dominant alleles of both genes (A-C-) will have the agouti color, whereas mice that are homozygous recessive at the A gene (aaC-) will be black. So, at the A gene, A for agouti
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