barcode scanning in c#.net Figure 12.12 Types of DNA point mutations. Single-step in Software

Printing Denso QR Bar Code in Software Figure 12.12 Types of DNA point mutations. Single-step

Figure 12.12 Types of DNA point mutations. Single-step
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changes are replacements, additions, or deletions. A second point mutation in the same gene can result either in a double mutation, reversion to the original, or intragenic suppression. In this case, intragenic suppression is illustrated by the addition of one base followed by the nearby deletion of a different base.
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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12. DNA: Its Mutation, Repair, and Recombination
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Mutation
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or subtract a base are, potentially, the most devastating in their effects on the cell or organism because they change the reading frame of a gene from the site of mutation onward ( g. 12.13). A frameshift mutation causes two problems. First, all the codons from the frameshift on will be different and thus yield (most probably) a useless protein. Second, stop-signal information will be misread. One of the new codons may be a nonsense codon, which causes translation to stop prematurely. Or, if the translation apparatus reaches the original nonsense codon, it is no longer recognized as such because it is in a different reading frame, and therefore, the translation process continues beyond the end of the gene.
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that substitutes the AACCCT sequence for the original AAACCC. These sequences, when transcribed (UUGGGA, UUUGGG), are codons for leucine-glycine and phenylalanine-glycine, respectively. Intragenic suppression occurs whether the new codons are for different amino acids or the same amino acids, as long as the phenotype of the organism is reverted approximately to the original. Suppressed mutations can be distinguished from true back mutations either by subtle differences in phenotype, by genetic crosses, by changes in the amino acid sequence of a protein, or by DNA sequencing.
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Conditional Lethality
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A class of mutants that has been very useful to geneticists is the conditional-lethal mutant, a mutant that is lethal under one set of circumstances but not under another set. Nutritional-requirement mutants are good examples (see chapter 7). Temperature-sensitive mutants are conditional-lethal mutants that have made it possible for geneticists to work with genes that control vital functions of the cell, such as DNA synthesis. Many temperature-sensitive mutants are completely normal at 25 C but cannot synthesize DNA at 42 C. Presumably, temperature-sensitive mutations result in enzymes with amino acid substitutions that cause protein denaturation to occur at temperatures above normal. Thus, the enzyme has normal function at 25 C, the permissive temperature, but is nonfunctional at 42 C, the restrictive temperature.
Back Mutation and Suppression
A second point mutation in the same gene can have one of three possible effects (see g. 12.12). First, the mutation can result in either another mutant codon or in one codon that has experienced two changes. Second, if the change is at the same site, the original sequence can be returned, an effect known as back mutation: the gene then becomes a revertant, with its original function restored. Third, intragenic suppression can take place. Intragenic suppression occurs when a second mutation in the same gene masks the occurrence of the original mutation without actually restoring the original sequence. The new sequence is a double mutation that appears to have the original (unmutated) phenotype. In gure 12.12, a T addition is followed by an A deletion
Figure 12.13 Possible effects of a frameshift mutation. The insertion of a single base
results in the creation of a new stop sequence (amber). The result will be premature termination of translation.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
12. DNA: Its Mutation, Repair, and Recombination
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Twelve
DNA: Its Mutation, Repair, and Recombination
The interesting thing about most conditional-lethal mutants of E. coli that cannot synthesize DNA at the restrictive temperature is that they have a completely normal DNA polymerase I. From this information, we infer that polymerase I is not the enzyme E. coli normally uses for DNA replication. When an organism with a conditional mutation of polymerase I was isolated, it was able to replicate its DNA normally, but unable to repair damage to the DNA. This led to the conclusion that polymerase I is primarily involved in repair rather than replication of DNA. Conditional-lethal mutants thus allow genetic analysis on genes otherwise impossible to study.
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