barcode scanning in asp.net PRACTICAL BENEFITS FROM GENE CLONING in Software

Generation QR in Software PRACTICAL BENEFITS FROM GENE CLONING

PRACTICAL BENEFITS FROM GENE CLONING
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Throughout this chapter, we have mentioned applications of genetic engineering. Here we summarize some of the accomplishments and future directions in the medical, agricultural, and industrial arenas.
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Medicine
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In medicine, genetic engineering has had remarkable successes in some areas. On the one hand, basic knowledge about how genes work (and don t work) has advanced tremendously. On the other hand, recombinant DNA methodology has made available large quantities of
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Figure 13.46 The sow shown is transgenic, producing large
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quantities of human protein C in her milk. The protein controls blood clotting and is normally found only in trace quantities in human blood. (Courtesy of William H. Velander, Virginia Tech.)
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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13. Genomics, Biotechnology, and Recombinant DNA
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Thirteen
Genomics, Biotechnology, and Recombinant DNA
Agriculture
Currently, in the United States, approximately one quarter of farmland is planted with crops that are genetically modi ed. Most are resistant to certain insect pests because they contain genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (often referred to as Bt). These genes are for insecticidal proteins called endotoxins. For example, the proteins Cry1A and Cry1C from Bacillus thuringiensis protect the plants against larval forms of lepidopterans such as the European corn borer. Cry3A protects against coleopterans such as the Colorado potato beetle. In excess of fty genetically altered crop plants have been approved for planting, including those protected against insect pests, frost, and premature ripening. Rice is being modi ed so that its vitamin A potential is maintained even after the husks are removed, a procedure done to allow for storage since the husks become rancid. That change alone will improve the health of millions of people throughout the world. Box 13.1 discussed some of the ethical concerns surrounding genetically modi ed crop plants.
Industry
Industrial applications of biotechnology include engineering bacteria to break down toxic wastes, modifying yeast to use cellulose to produce glucose and alcohol for fuel, using algae in mariculture (the cultivation of marine organisms in their natural environments) to produce both food and other useful substances, and developing better food processing methods and waste conversion. As an example, baker s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been modi ed with a plasmid that contains two cellulase genes, an endoglucanase and an exoglucanase, that convert cellulose to glucose. The yeast can then convert glucose to ethyl alcohol. These yeasts are now capable of digesting wood (cellulose) and converting it directly to alcohol. The potential exists to harvest the alcohol the yeast produces as a fuel to replace fossil fuels that are in dwindling supply and are polluting the planet. As you can see, there is no one direction that biotechnology is taking. Many advances are being made that will probably affect every person s life in a bene cial way. Cautious optimism is certainly in order.
S U M M A R Y
STUDY OBJECTIVE 1: To look at the techniques of gene
cloning
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Recombinant DNA techniques revolve around the cloning of foreign DNA in a plasmid or phage. Cloned DNA can be ampli ed, expressed, and sequenced. Gene cloning techniques came about with the discovery of restriction endonucleases. Type II restriction endonucleases cleave DNA at palindromic regions, which have twofold symmetry. Recombinant vectors can be constructed several different ways. Foreign and vector DNA can be made compatible by treating each with the same restriction endonuclease each will then have the same sticky ends. If that does not work, T4 DNA ligase can join blunt ends. In a variation of this method, linkers containing restriction sites are added to vector and foreign DNA. These linkers are then treated with a restriction endonuclease that gives the DNA sticky ends. DNA to be cloned can be synthesized from an RNA template (cDNA) or isolated by various techniques. If messenger RNA is available, it can be converted into a clonable complementary DNA with the enzyme reverse transcriptase. If DNA is to be isolated directly, it must be identi ed among all the other DNA fragments created. Locating a desirable piece of DNA is done with probes, complementary nucleic acids labeled with radioactivity or chemiluminescence. Southern blotting, a transfer technique, is used rst,
followed by DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA hybridization and autoradiography. If the DNA is cloned rst, as in the creation of a genomic library, probes can be created or expression of the cloned gene can be determined. Eukaryotic vectors have been developed, including yeast plasmids, tumor virus vehicles in animals, and crown gall tumor plasmids in plants. Eukaryotes can be transfected by foreign DNA and express it in transgenic organisms. DNA can be injected, shot in on projectiles, electroporated, or introduced by viruses, plasmids, or liposomes. Knockout mice, lacking a speci c gene, can be created. STUDY OBJECTIVE 2: To examine the techniques of cre-
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