barcode scanning in asp.net Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition in Software

Drawer Quick Response Code in Software Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition

Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
QR Code ISO/IEC18004 Recognizer In None
Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications.
Paint QR In None
Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create QR Code JIS X 0510 image in Software applications.
III. Molecular Genetics
QR Code JIS X 0510 Reader In None
Using Barcode scanner for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
Denso QR Bar Code Drawer In C#
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in .NET framework applications.
15. The Eukaryotic Chromosome
Generating QR Code In .NET
Using Barcode generation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in ASP.NET applications.
QR Code 2d Barcode Drawer In .NET
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in VS .NET applications.
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
QR Code 2d Barcode Drawer In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create QR Code 2d barcode image in .NET applications.
Code 128 Code Set A Encoder In None
Using Barcode creator for Software Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set C image in Software applications.
Fifteen
Generate Code 39 Full ASCII In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create Code-39 image in Software applications.
Barcode Encoder In None
Using Barcode maker for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications.
The Eukaryotic Chromosome
EAN 13 Creator In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create European Article Number 13 image in Software applications.
Creating ECC200 In None
Using Barcode printer for Software Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Software applications.
78 86 bp 91 95% AT
UCC - 14 Creation In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create UPC Case Code image in Software applications.
Data Matrix 2d Barcode Reader In Java
Using Barcode reader for Java Control to read, scan read, scan image in Java applications.
Consensus sequence for the three regions (I III) of fteen yeast centromeres. Pu represents any purine, Py represents any pyrimidine, and X represents any base. The arrows appear over inverted repeat sequences. (Source: Data from L. Clarke and J. Carbon, The structure and function of
Data Matrix Scanner In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode decoder for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
Data Matrix ECC200 Generator In None
Using Barcode generation for Online Control to generate, create Data Matrix 2d barcode image in Online applications.
yeast centromeres, Annual Review of Genetics, 19:29 56, 1985.)
Generating Barcode In Java
Using Barcode creator for BIRT reports Control to generate, create barcode image in BIRT reports applications.
GS1 DataBar Expanded Creation In Java
Using Barcode generator for Java Control to generate, create GS1 DataBar-14 image in Java applications.
15 20 nm dia.
Decode Bar Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for ASP.NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
Data Matrix Decoder In C#.NET
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
Schematic view of a yeast centromeric region. The arrows are the nucleasehypersensitive sites. A microtubule is about the same width as the centromeric region. (With permission,
from the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume 19 1985 by Annual Reviews www.AnnualReviews.org)
Telomeres
Since eukaryotic chromosomes are linear, each has two ends, referred to as telomeres, that not only mark the termination of the linear chromosome but also have several speci c functions ( g. 15.25). Telomeres must prevent the chromosomal ends from acting in a sticky fashion, the way that broken chromosomal ends act (see chapter 8). In other words, chromosomal ends must not elicit a DNA repair response (see chapter 12). Telomeres must also prevent the ends of chromosomes from being degraded by exonucleases and must allow chromosomal ends to be properly replicated. Most telomeres isolated so far are repetitions of sequences of ve to eight bases. In human beings, the telomeric sequence is TTAGGG, repeated 300 to 5,000 times at the end of each chromosome. The human telomere was discovered by R. Moyzis and his colleagues when they probed the highly repetitive segment of human DNA. (Highly repetitive DNA, as its name implies, consists of numerous copies of a single sequence and usually comprises the satellite components of the cell s DNA; see next section.) When a probe for this sequence was applied to human chromosomes, the sequence was
found at the tip of each chromosome in roughly the same quantity ( g. 15.26).This is a highly conserved sequence, found in all vertebrates studied as well as in unicellular trypanosomes. Similar sequences are found in various other eukaryotes (table 15.4); the rst sequence was isolated by E. Blackburn and J. Gall in 1978. When a linear DNA molecule is replicated, the 3 5 strand can be replicated to the end (see chapter 9). The 5 3 strand, however, is replicated with RNA primers that are then degraded, leaving a short gap on the progeny strand ( g. 15.27). It is always the G-rich strand of telomeric DNA that ends up single-stranded, forming a 3 overhang of twelve to sixteen nucleotides. Thus, the normal replication process of a linear DNA molecule leaves an incomplete terminus. Hence, scientists suspected that there would be a unique mechanism for the replication of telomeres. Telomeric sequences appear to be added de novo without, DNA template assistance by an enzyme called telomerase, discovered by E. Blackburn and her colleagues. This was seen when telomeres from another species were engineered into yeast cells. After a cell cycle, the yeast telomeric sequence had been added on at
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
15. The Eukaryotic Chromosome
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
The Eukaryotic Chromosome
Figure 15.26 The human genome probed for the telomeric sequence, TTAGGG, using uorescent staining techniques. The yellow dots at the tips of the chromosomes are the probes.
(From Robert K. Moyzis, et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 85:6622 26, 1988. Figure 4, left.)
Polytene chromosome from the salivary gland of a Drosophila larva showing bands, interbands, puffs, and telomeres. ( David M. Phillips/Visuals Unlimited.)
Table 15.4 Telomeric Sequences in Eukaryotes;
The G-Rich Strand of the Double Helix Is Shown
Organism Human beings, other mammals, birds, reptiles Trypanosomes Holotrichous ciliates (Tetrahymena) Hypotrichous ciliates (Stylonychia) Yeast Plants Telomeric Repeat TTAGGG TTAGGG GGGGTT GGGGTTTT GT, GGT, and GGGT TTTAGGG
Elizabeth H. Blackburn (1948 ). (Courtesy of Dr.
Elizabeth H. Blackburn.)
the ends of the foreign chromosome, the result, presumably, of the telomerase enzyme. When Blackburn and her colleagues isolated telomerase, they discovered that a segment of RNA, about 160 base pairs, is an integral part of the enzyme. That RNA has a region that is complementary to the G-rich repeat of the telomeric DNA sequence of the species. After careful experimentation, including modifying the gene for the telomerase RNA, Blackburn and her colleagues concluded that telomerase uses its RNA as a template for adding telomeric repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is thus a reverse transcriptase, using RNA nucleotides as a template to polymerize DNA nucleotides.
Blackburn and her colleagues proposed that the rst step in telomere extension is hybridization of the 3 end of the telomere with the RNA component of telomerase ( g. 15.28a). Then, with the telomerase RNA as a template, the 3 end of the telomere is extended ( g. 15.28b). Finally, a translocation step takes place that displaces the telomere in respect to the RNA, returning to the con guration at the beginning of the process ( g. 15.28c). The single-stranded C-rich strand is then synthesized with DNA polymerase and DNA ligase. Once telomeres have been added to the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, different organisms use any of three different methods known to protect the ends of
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.