barcode reader vb.net source code Nasobemia, a mutation that causes legs to grow in the place of antennae on the head of a Drosophila. in Software

Making Quick Response Code in Software Nasobemia, a mutation that causes legs to grow in the place of antennae on the head of a Drosophila.

Nasobemia, a mutation that causes legs to grow in the place of antennae on the head of a Drosophila.
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(Courtesy of Dr. Walter J. Gehring.)
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Patterns in Development
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quence conservation across widely divergent groups of organisms indicates that the sequence is crucial to the functioning of homeotic genes and that the mechanism arose early in evolutionary time. The conservation of homeotic control throughout evolutionary history is evident from the fact that the homeotic genes that control the development of fruit ies are also found in mammals. During evolutionary history, the mammalian genome has been duplicated four times. Thus, there are four homeotic clusters in mice, called Hox clusters, on four different chromosomes ( g. 16.21). With multiple copies, the genes could be modi ed by evolution while still maintaining one copy functioning as originally intended. This duplication has allowed increased complexity in higher eukaryotes. As the Drosophila homeobox genes function from anterior to posterior, so do the homeobox genes in other organisms.
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Much work is being done in determining the genetic control of development in plants. A favored model is the thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of the mustard family ( g. 16.22). It is a dicotyledonous angiosperm, ideal for the study of ower development, a current focus of attention. Flowers have an arrangement of repeated units not unlike the segmentation found in fruit ies. Flower development takes place in two phases, oral induction and pattern formation. In oral induction, the shoot apical meristem sets aside a oral meristem. The organ primordia are then generated. There are four primordia, in the form of four whorls, that make up a ower. Outermost is the sepal whorl, then the petal whorl, then the stamen whorl, responsible for the male parts of the ower, and nally the innermost carpel whorl, responsible for the female parts of the ower (the pistil; g. 16.23).The genetics of development in plants is
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(b) Figure 16.19 A normal fruit y (a) and a bithorax mutant (b). The bithorax mutant is actually the product of a combination of three mutations that produce a y with an almost perfect second thorax with its own set of wings. (Courtesy of E. B. Lewis,
California Institute of Technology.)
The homeo domain of three genes: the MO-10 gene from the mouse (Mus), the MM3 gene from the frog (Rana), and the Antennapedia gene from Drosophila, which is considered the consensus sequence; amino acids in red differ from this sequence. (From W. J. Gehring, Scienti c American, November 1985. Reprinted with
permission of Walter J. Gehring.)
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Sixteen
Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
BOX 16.1
ifferent motifs have been found in speci c transcription factors and other proteins that bind to DNA. In homeo domains, amino acids 31 to 38 and 41 to 50 form helices. The con guration of two helices in a protein, separated by a short segment (called a turn ), has been found in many proteins that bind to DNA (e.g., Cro, repressor, CAP protein). It is called the helix-turn-helix motif. One helix recognizes a DNA sequence by tting into the major groove, and the other helix stabilizes the con guration ( g. 1). The helix-turn-helix (or helixloop-helix) motif appears in some proteins that bind to DNA. However, different motifs have also been found in other proteins that bind to DNA. These include the zinc nger, the leucine zipper, and the basic/ helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper. The zinc nger, a ngerlike projection of amino acids, whose base consists of cysteine and histidine residues binding a zinc ion, was rst discovered in 1985 by A. Klug and his
Experimental Methods
Protein Motifs of DNA Recognition
colleagues in the transcription factor TFIIIA in Xenopus ( g. 2). These ngers are referred to as C2H2 proteins because two cysteines (C2) and two histidines (H2) are involved.There are also C x proteins in which x is either 4, 5, or 6, referring to the number of cysteines involved in the chelation of the zinc ion, and other variants of protein structures formed around zinc ions. Another motif was discovered in analyzing a DNA-binding protein from rat liver nuclei. Scientists noticed that in -helical regions of the protein, a repetition of leucines occurred every seven residues for sequences as long as forty-two residues. In a helical con guration, these leucines would line up on one side of
the protein. When a computer search for sequences of this type was done, several other proteins, believed to bind to DNA, showed up with this con guration, including three cancercausing genes, c-myc, fos, and jun, and a transcription-regulating protein in yeast. Using the computer, the scientists developed the leucine-zipper model, in which two helices with leucine repeats would interdigitate the leucines, in zipper fashion, to form a stable molecule ( g. 3). This zipper could provide a scaffolding for other amino acids that could then recognize speci c DNA sequences in order to perform their functions. A recently discovered DNA-binding motif, the basic/helix-loop-helix/ leucine zipper, is a series of basic amino acids followed by the helixloop-helix and then a leucine zipper ( g. 4). This motif is found in the Myc oncoprotein and in a transcription factor, Max, that binds with Myc. Knowing that speci c motifs bind to DNA gives us an idea of the function of many proteins as soon as their amino acid sequences are determined.
Figure 1 The helix-turn-helix motif of a DNA-binding protein. The two helices are pictured as cylinders. The -helix 1 recognizes the DNA sequence in the major groove; the -helix 2 stabilizes the con guration.
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