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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Patterns in Development
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Figure 2 The zinc- nger con guration of the TFIIIA protein. Zinc chelates with cysteines and histidines to form the base of the nger structure.
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leucine-zipper region of the Max transcription factor. The leucine residues line up opposite each other in the two strands. (From A. R. Ferr D Amar , et al., Recognition by Max of its cognate DNA through a dimeric b/HLH/Z domain, Nature 363:38 45, May 6, 1993. Macmillian Magazines Limited.)
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Figure 4 Diagram of a dimer of basic/helixloop-helix/leucine zipper interacting with DNA. One basic region, interacting with DNA, is shown in red, followed by the rst helix in yellow, the loop in purple, the second helix in blue, and the zipper portion in orange. The second monomer is shown in gray. (From A. R.
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Ferr -D Amar , et al., Recognition by Max of its cognate DNA through a dimeric b/HLH/Z domain, Nature 363:38 45, May 6, 1993. Macmillan Magazines Limited.)
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Sixteen
Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
Abd-B abd-A Ubx
Antp
Hom-C
A1 Hox-A
B1 Hox-B
C4 Hox-C
The homeobox genes in Drosophila (Hom-C) are aligned with the four homeobox clusters of the mouse, labeled Hox-A, Hox-B, Hox-C, and Hox-D. Note that not all genes are present in all four mouse Hox clusters and that as many as four additional genes (10 13) are present in each mouse region as compared with the y.
D1 Hox-D
Pistil
Stamen (B, C) Petal Sepal (A, B) (A)
Cutaway view of a typical angiosperm ower. The ower develops from four whorls: sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel. Homeodomain genes in the A group are active in sepal and petal whorls; homeodomain genes of the B group are active in petal and stamen whorls; and homeodomain genes in the C group are active in the stamen and carpel whorls (the pistil develops from the carpel whorl).
The thale cress plant, Arabidopsis thaliana.
(Courtesy of Dr. John Celenza.)
studied by mutational analysis, selective ablation (removal or killing) of cells during development, and other techniques used in animal studies. Many genes have been isolated that affect the sequence of steps of oral induction and pattern formation. The rst stage to be controlled in oral induction is its timing. That is, ower formation usually occurs at a speci c time in the life cycle of a plant, affected by environmental cues (day length, temperature). In Arabidopsis, at least three dozen genes have been isolated that affect the timing of ower formation. These genes include
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Patterns in Development
CONSTANS, a late- owering gene, EARLY FLOWERING 1, an early- owering gene, and GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE, a gene for late owering only in short days (autumn). The next stage in oral induction is generating oral meristem at the point where a ower will form. At least ve genes are known that impart identity on oral meristem ( oral-meristem identity genes); when mutated, these genes result in either shoots instead of owers or in highly abnormal owers. These genes include LEAFY, UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS, APETALA1, and APETALA2. Floral development continues by the creation of organ primordia. Although far removed from animals in both taxonomy and DNA sequences, plants have homeotic genes, some producing proteins homologous to those produced by animal genes. Currently, oral homeotic genes are classi ed into three categories, A, B, and C. Genes from category A affect sepals and petals; genes from category B affect petals and stamens; and genes from category C affect stamens and carpels ( g. 16.23). This is not unlike the model of action in Drosophila s homeotic gene clusters, which acts sequentially, controlling development along the head-to-tail axis of the y. It appears that genetic control of oral development is highly conserved across angiosperms, the dominant plant group. An example of a homeotic gene is AGAMOUS, a gene in the C group required for the development of stamens and carpels. Expression of this gene takes place in the third and fourth whorls of the ower, the stamen and carpel whorls. After its expression in the appropriate whorls, AGAMOUS is repressed. Its repressor is another gene, CURLY LEAF. When the protein product of CURLY LEAF was compared with protein sequences from Drosophila, it proved to have similarities in amino acid sequence with a gene in Drosophila called Enhancer of zeste. This gene is also a repressor of a homeotic gene, but in fruit ies. Thus, several valuable conclusions come from this study of Arabidopsis. Most important is the fact that
plants and animals seem to use similar mechanisms in development. Both groups have repeated units (segments) in development; both have homeotic genes that control developmental pathways in these units; both have repressors of homeotic genes that maintain the proper developmental fate in their segments; and, despite large taxonomic distances, there is some homology between the proteins in plants and animals.
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