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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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MHC I
Proteasome Figure 16.47
Endoplasmic reticulum
How the MHC I protein obtains foreign peptide to display at the cell surface. In this example, a virus attacks a cell. The viral protein is recognized as foreign and is tagged with ubiquitin. The tagged protein is then unfolded and fed into a proteasome. With the aid of TAP, a piece of the degraded protein enters the endoplasmic reticulum, where it combines with the MHC I protein, which is then transported to the cell surface.
Killer T cell T cell receptor MHC I with antigen Body cell (a) Activates B cells Figure 16.48 MHC class I and II proteins are found on different types of cells and recognized by different types of T cells. In (a), a normal body cell presents a foreign antigen in an MHC class I protein that a passing killer T cell recognizes. The T cell then releases toxins that kill the infected cell. In (b), a macrophage presents an antigen in an MHC class II protein that a helper T cell recognizes. The T cell stimulates the macrophage to destroy its invaders and also stimulates a B-cell reaction. Releases toxins to kill body cell
Helper T cell Stimulates macrophage MHC II with antigen to destroy invaders within Macrophage T cell receptor (b)
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
III. Molecular Genetics
16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Sixteen
Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
BOX 16.3
n 1983, Robert C. Gallo of the National Cancer Institute and Luc Montagnier of the Pasteur Institute of Paris co-discovered HIV the human immunode ciency virus, causative agent of acquired immune de ciency syndrome, or AIDS ( g. 1). HIV is a retrovirus causing a disease rst diagnosed in 1981 among young male homosexuals in the United States. The AIDS virus attacks helper T cells; a particular protein on the surface of these T cells, called CD4, is a receptor for the HIV virus coat protein, gp120 ( g. 2). A secondary receptor, the protein CCR5, is also needed for the virus to gain entry into the cell. (CCR5 refers to cysteinecysteine linked cytokine receptor 5.) HIV also attacks macrophages. With destruction of the T cells, a person s immune system loses the ability to ght off common diseases. Persons who develop the disease frequently fall victim to opportunistic diseases
Biomedical Applications
AIDS and Retroviruses
such as pneumonia caused by the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii; Kaposi s sarcoma, a rare cancer found in people taking immunosuppressive drugs; and several other conditions, normally rare except in people with suppressed immune systems.These conditions collectively became known as the acquired immune de ciency syndrome. EPIDEMIOLOGY AIDS has spread throughout the world. A 1959 blood sample from central Africa contained the rst known human infection. By sequencing similar viruses in primates (simian immune de cient viruses, SIVs), re-
searchers discovered that the common form of AIDS, caused by HIV-1, jumped from chimpanzees to human beings in the region of Gabon in western Africa. HIV-2, causing the less common form of AIDS, came from sooty mangabeys; SIVs have jumped to human beings at least seven times. There seem to be two worldwide patterns in the spread of AIDS, which is not contracted by casual contact. In the New World, Australia, and Western Europe, homosexual men and intravenous drug users primarily spread the disease and are the groups at highest risk. In Africa and the Caribbean, the disease is spread primarily through heterosexual sex. Parts of southern Africa have infection rates between 16 and 32%; Eastern Europe, Asia, and North Africa have relatively low infection rates. In the United States, over 750,000 persons have the AIDS virus, with 350,000 deaths reported. Worldwide,
Robert C. Gallo (1937 ).
(Courtesy of Dr. Robert Gallo.)
Figure 1 Scanning electron micrograph of a T-lymphocyte (green) infected with
Luc Montagnier (1932 ).
(Courtesy of Dr. Luc Montagnier.)
the AIDS virus. Small spherical structures (red) on the surface of the cell are new virus particles budding off. ( NIBSC, Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
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