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env gp120 gp41 vif vpu vpr tat rev nef
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3 TAR
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Figure 4 The genome of HIV-1. Boxes represent different genes. The gag gene is responsible for four proteins, p17 (matrix), p24 (capsid), p7 (nucleocapsid), and p6. The pol gene is responsible for protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN). The env gene is responsible for two envelope proteins, gp120 and gp41. Intervening DNA separates the tat and rev genes into two parts each. TAR is in the long terminal repeat (LTR), and RRE is in env. (From R. H. Miller and N. Sarvar,
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HIV Accessory Proteins as Therapeutic Targets, Nature Medicine 3:389 91, 1987. Copyright 1987 Nature Publishing Group.)
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Figure 5 AZT; it differs from deoxythymidine monophosphate at the 3 position of the sugar.
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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16. Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes
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Solved Problems
S U M M A R Y
STUDY OBJECTIVE 1: To examine the control of tran-
scription in eukaryotes
465 469
In eukaryotes, speci c transcription factors that can gain access to promoters generally control transcription. In addition, nucleosome structure can obstruct the RNA polymerase holoenzyme s access to the promoter. Signal transduction pathways provide environmental cues that lead to remodeled nucleosomes and the appearance of speci c transcription factors at gene promoters that are scheduled to begin transcription. Methylation is involved in the control of gene expression in some higher eukaryotes; the methylation level is high in nontranscribed genes in the cells of these organisms. Transposons can also control gene expression. Mutable loci in corn and mating type in yeast are both determined by transposition. Z DNA may also play a role in the eukaryotic control of transcription. STUDY OBJECTIVE 2: To analyze the genetic control of
determine differential gene expression in neighboring cells. Finally, homeotic genes determine the fates of entire regions of the body. Flowering in angiosperms also involves repeated units (whorls) and homeobox genes. STUDY OBJECTIVE 3: To study the mechanisms causing
cancer 484 492
Cancer is a generic term for genetic diseases in which cells proliferate inappropriately. Mutations in oncogenes (cancercausing genes) or tumor-suppressor genes, such as p53, can lead to cancer. Mutation can take place by base pair changes, chromosomal rearrangements, and ampli cation. Viruses can also bring oncogenes into cells, causing the activation of the oncogenes. For the full development of cancer, several genes usually must mutate. STUDY OBJECTIVE 4: To study the genetic mechanisms that generate antibody diversity 492 504 Immunoglobulins (antibodies) have tremendous diversity; about 109 different antibodies can be generated by the human genome. This number comes about by V(D)J joining between several genes among hundreds, as well as by junctional diversity caused by the location of the crossover points during site-speci c recombination, template-free addition of codons (N segments), and somatic hypermutation. Similar diversity exists in T-cell receptors that recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. These proteins present foreign polypeptides for destruction by the immune system.
development in eukaryotes
469 484
The ultimate goal of the developmental geneticist is to understand the role of genes in controlling development, the orderly sequence of changes that give rise to a complex organism. Development does not have to proceed by permanently changing the chromosomes; cloning has shown that differentiated nuclei can be totipotent. The Drosophila embryo begins development with morphogens, diffusable messenger RNAs and proteins secreted by maternal-effect genes. These genes provide anterior, posterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterns of transcription for zygotic segmentation genes; these segmentation genes fall into the gap, pair-rule, and segment-polarity classes.They eventually
S O L V E D
PROBLEM 1: Relate the homeo box, homeo domain, and
P R O B L E M S
master-switch gene would translate to a speci c transcription factor, a protein that might control transcription of many genes (a synexpression group). For this to happen, the master-switch gene would need to interact with DNA. Thus, the nding of a homeo box that transcribes a homeo domain in genes that control large phenotypic changes is consistent with this view. The homeo domain is the part of the transcription factor that binds to DNA.
master-switch concepts. Answer: A master-switch gene is a gene in a eukaryote that controls many other genes. In a prokaryote, this control is achieved with operon organization; that is, many genes controlling the same function are transcribed as a unit. Thus, a gene that represses transcription of an operon represses all of the genes in that operon. A master-switch gene is viewed in a similar manner, given that polygenic transcripts are very rare in eukaryotes. A
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